Print Get Citation Citation Disclaimer: These citations have been automatically generated based on the information we have and it may not be 100% accurate. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. AMA Citation Dougherty B, Chan A. Dougherty B, & Chan A Dougherty, Brian, and Alex Chan. Association of symptoms of depression with cardiovascular disease and mortality in low, middle, and high-Income countries. 2 Minute Medicine, 22 June 2020. McGraw-Hill, 2020. AccessMedicine. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/updatesContent.aspx?gbosid=550767§ionid=248302769APA Citation Dougherty B, Chan A. Dougherty B, & Chan A Dougherty, Brian, and Alex Chan. (2020). Association of symptoms of depression with cardiovascular disease and mortality in low, middle, and high-income countries. (2020). 2 minute medicine. McGraw-Hill. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/updatesContent.aspx?gbosid=550767§ionid=248302769.MLA Citation Dougherty B, Chan A. Dougherty B, & Chan A Dougherty, Brian, and Alex Chan. "Association of symptoms of depression with cardiovascular disease and mortality in low, middle, and high-Income countries." 2 Minute Medicine McGraw-Hill, 2020, https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/updatesContent.aspx?gbosid=550767§ionid=248302769. Download citation file: RIS (Zotero) EndNote BibTex Medlars ProCite RefWorks Reference Manager Mendeley © Copyright Clip Full Chapter Figures Only Tables Only Videos Only Supplementary Content Top Association of symptoms of depression with cardiovascular disease and mortality in low, middle, and high-Income countries by Brian Dougherty, Alex Chan Listen +Originally published by 2 Minute Medicine® (view original article). Reused on AccessMedicine with permission. +1. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality across multiple countries and communities at varying stages of economic development. +2. The strength of the association was highest in populations living in urban areas. +Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) +Depression has been shown to be associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancers, and mortality. As these studies have nearly exclusively been carried out in high-income countries however, it is not clear if those findings are transferrable to resource-poor populations. This multicenter, population-based cohort study involved 145,862 participants from 370 urban and 341 rural communities across 5 low-, 5 lower-middle-, 7 upper-middle-, and 4 high-income countries. Individuals with 4 or more self-reported depressive symptoms (n = 15,983, M [SD] age = 49.2 [9.3] years) were compared with those reporting less than 4 (n = 129,879, M [SD] age = 50.2 [9.7] years) for incident CVD, all-cause mortality, and a combined measure of either incident CVD or all-cause mortality. Incidence of CVD (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.27, p <0.001), mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26, p <0.001), and combined CVD and all-cause mortality (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.27, p<0.001) were shown to be significantly increased among participants reporting 4 or more depressive symptoms, increasing overall risk of incident CVD and all-cause mortality by 14% and 17%, respectively. Relative risk for all primary outcomes was shown to significantly (p <0.001) trend upward with more self-reported depressive symptoms, from HR 1.05 (95% CI, -0.92 to 1.19) among those reporting 1 symptom to HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.37) among those reporting 7 symptoms. HRs for depression were similar in the different geographical regions studied (p = 0.56) and in both income cohorts (p = 0.52); however, the risk doubled in urban communities (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.34) compared with rural communities (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.19, p = 0.001). Finally, among men (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.38) the association between depressive symptoms and all primary outcomes compared with women (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.23) was significantly stronger (p <0.001). Overall, this study demonstrates the association between depressive symptoms and CVD and mortality that exist in countries across various stages of development and geographical context. Given that strength of the association was highest in urban areas, government and healthcare policy must be directed to address this relationship as the majority of the global population is projected to live in urban areas by the mid-century. +Click to read the study in JAMA Psychiatry +©2020 2 Minute Medicine, Inc. All rights reserved. No works may be reproduced without expressed written consent from 2 Minute Medicine, Inc. Inquire about licensing here. No article should be construed as medical advice and is not intended as such by the authors or by 2 Minute Medicine, Inc.