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ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS

ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS

  • Acute onset of unilateral chest pain and dyspnea.

  • Minimal physical findings in mild cases; unilateral chest expansion, decreased tactile fremitus, hyperresonance, diminished breath sounds, mediastinal shift, cyanosis, and hypotension in tension pneumothorax.

  • Presence of pleural air on chest radiograph.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Pneumothorax, or accumulation of air in the pleural space, is classified as spontaneous (primary or secondary), traumatic, or iatrogenic. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in the absence of an underlying lung disease, whereas secondary spontaneous pneumothorax is a complication of preexisting pulmonary disease. Traumatic pneumothorax results from penetrating or blunt trauma and includes iatrogenic pneumothorax following procedures, such as thoracentesis, pleural biopsy, subclavian or internal jugular vein catheter placement, percutaneous lung biopsy, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, and positive-pressure mechanical ventilation. Tension pneumothorax usually occurs in the setting of penetrating trauma, lung infection, CPR, or positive-pressure mechanical ventilation. In tension pneumothorax, the pressure of air in the pleural space exceeds alveolar and venous pressures throughout the respiratory cycle, resulting in compression of lung and reduction of venous return to the hemithorax; a check-valve mechanism may allow air to enter the pleural space on inspiration and to prevent egress of air on expiration.

Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is more likely among tall, thin individuals, more common in men, typically occurring at a young age (less than 45 years). It is thought to occur from rupture of subpleural apical blebs in response to high negative intrapleural pressures. Cigarette smoking is correlated with occurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax, as are connective tissue disorders such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes.

Secondary pneumothorax occurs as a complication of COPD, interstitial lung disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, necrotizing bacterial pneumonia, menstruation (catamenial pneumothorax), and a wide variety of cystic lung diseases, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis, tuberous sclerosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (a hereditary condition with multiple benign skin tumors, lung cysts, and increased risk of both benign and malignant kidney tumors). Secondary pneumothorax, particularly in patients with underlying symptomatic lung disease, is more poorly tolerated due to the decreased respiratory reserve in this group.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

A. Symptoms and Signs

Chest pain ranging from minimal to severe on the affected side and dyspnea occur in nearly all patients, and cough is commonly reported. Pneumothorax may present with life-threatening respiratory failure if underlying lung disease is present or if tension pneumothorax physiology ensues.

If pneumothorax is small (less than 15% of a hemithorax), physical findings, other than mild tachycardia, are normal. If pneumothorax is large, diminished breath sounds, decreased tactile fremitus, decreased movement of the chest, and hyperresonant percussion note are often found. Tension pneumothorax should be suspected in the presence of marked tachycardia, hypotension, and mediastinal or tracheal shift.

B. Laboratory Findings

ABG analysis ...

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