ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS
Transient loss of consciousness and postural tone from vasodepressor or cardiogenic causes with prompt recovery without resuscitative measures.
High-risk features include history of structural heart disease, abnormal ECG, and age > 60 years.
Syncope is a symptom defined as a transient, self-limited loss of consciousness, usually leading to a fall. Thirty percent of the adult population will experience at least one episode of syncope. It accounts for approximately 3% of emergency department visits. A specific cause of syncope is identified in about 50% of cases during the initial evaluation. The prognosis is relatively favorable except when accompanying cardiac disease is present. In many patients with recurrent syncope or near syncope, arrhythmias are not the cause. This is particularly true when the patient has no evidence of associated heart disease by history, examination, standard ECG, or noninvasive testing. The history is the most important component of the evaluation to identify the cause of syncope.
Reflex (neurally mediated) syncope may be due to excessive vagal tone or impaired reflex control of the peripheral circulation. The most frequent type is vasovagal syncope or the “common faint,” which is often initiated by a stressful, painful, or claustrophobic experience, especially in young women. Enhanced vagal tone with resulting hypotension is the cause of syncope in carotid sinus hypersensitivity and postmicturition syncope; vagal-induced sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, and AV block are common accompaniments and may themselves be the cause of syncope.
Orthostatic (postural) hypotension is another common cause of vasodepressor syncope, especially in elderly patients; in diabetic patients or others with autonomic neuropathy; in patients with blood loss or hypovolemia; and in patients taking vasodilators, diuretics, and adrenergic-blocking medications. In addition, a syndrome of chronic idiopathic orthostatic hypotension exists primarily in older men. In most of these conditions, the normal vasoconstrictive response to assuming upright posture, which compensates for the abrupt decrease in venous return, is impaired.
Cardiogenic syncope can occur on a mechanical or arrhythmic basis. There is usually no prodrome; thus, injury secondary to falling is common. Mechanical problems that can cause syncope include aortic stenosis (where syncope may occur from autonomic reflex abnormalities or ventricular tachycardia), pulmonary stenosis, HCM, congenital lesions associated with pulmonary hypertension or right-to-left shunting, and LA myxoma obstructing the mitral valve. Episodes are commonly exertional or postexertional. More commonly, cardiac syncope is due to disorders of automaticity (sick sinus syndrome), conduction disorders (AV block), or tachyarrhythmias (especially ventricular tachycardia and SVT with rapid ventricular rate).
Vasovagal syncope often has a prodrome of vasodepressor premonitory symptoms, such as nausea, diaphoresis, tachycardia, and pallor. Episodes can be aborted by lying down or removing the inciting stimulus. Cardiogenic syncope by contrast is characteristically abrupt in onset, often resulting in injury, transient (lasting for seconds to a few minutes), and ...