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INTRODUCTION

Globally life expectancy has increased to 71.8 years in 2015, from 61.4 years in 1980,1 contributing to the growing burden of disability associated with chronic diseases.2 Among these chronic conditions respiratory diseases are a major contributor to both morbidity (Table 56-1) and mortality (Table 56-2) at all ages worldwide. Moreover, the burden of disability from all respiratory diseases has increased (Table 56-1), partly attributable to improved survival among children and adolescence and population growth among regions with higher sociodemographic indicators (SDIs) based on higher incomes, higher educational attainment, and reduced fertility rates.3 In 2015, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were ranked 11th and 14th among the leading causes of disability worldwide.2

TABLE 56-1GLOBAL PREVALENCE AND YEARS LIVED WITH DISABILITY (YLD) FROM RESPIRATORY DISEASES AND ALL CONDITIONS, 2015
TABLE 56-2GLOBAL NUMBER OF DEATHS AND AGE-STANDARDIZED MORTALITY RATES FROM RESPIRATORY DISEASES, 2015

Of the 55.8 million global deaths in 2015, about 16% were attributed to respiratory diseases1 (Table 56-2). Although the absolute total number of deaths increased by 14.1% since 1990 and 4.1% since 2005, over the past 30 years the overall and most disease-specific death rates have declined.1 For respiratory diseases, between 2005 and 2015, absolute numbers and mortality rates have varied (Table 56-2). The number of deaths and death rates declined for lower respiratory tract infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and asthma. In contrast, the number and disease-specific mortality rates declined for lung cancer, COPD, and pneumoconiosis. And only interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) had both an increase in total number of deaths and mortality rate.

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