Cervical infection with the HPV is associated with virtually all cervical dysplasias and cancers. There are over 100 recognized HPV subtypes. Types 6 and 11 tend to cause genital warts and mild dysplasia and rarely progress to cervical cancer; types 16, 18, 31, and others cause higher-grade dysplasia. The HPV 9-valent (Gardasil-9) recombinant vaccine (9vHPV) is indicated for the prevention of cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers (in women) and anal cancers (in women and men) caused by HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; genital warts (in women and men) caused by HPV types 6 and 11; and precancerous/dysplastic lesions of cervix, vagina, vulva (in women), and anus (in women and men) caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Gardasil-9 is recommended for vaccination of females and males ages 9-45 years old. The earlier HPV 4-valent vaccine known as Gardasil that was indicated for prevention of diseases related to HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 has been discontinued in the United States. The use of HPV vaccination in the United States continues to increase; however, the HPV vaccination continues to lag far behind other vaccines recommended for adolescents. In 2018, 51% of adolescents were up to date with the three-dose HPV vaccine series compared with 48% in 2017.
Because complete coverage of all carcinogenic HPV types is not provided by either vaccine, all women need to have regular cervical cancer screening as outlined above. In addition to vaccination, preventive measures include limiting the number of sexual partners and thus exposure to HPV, using a diaphragm or condom for coitus, and smoking cessation and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke.