Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android. Learn more here!



  • imageSurvey research is one of the most common forms of research.

  • imageSurvey research generally involves asking people about a topic, although some surveys may be based on existing data sources.

  • imageA clear research question and specific objectives help guide the design of a survey and questionnaire.

  • imageSurvey topics may need to be investigated with focus groups in order to know the specific issues that are important to study.

  • imageSurvey methods are determined by the research question. They include interviews and self-administered questionnaires using the mail or telephone. They may be web-based, or given in person.

  • imageThe most appropriate types of questions and response scales should be selected, and questions should be free from bias.

  • imageQuestions that have a predetermined list of possible responses are easier to analyze than open-ended questions.

  • imageThe choice of scale (nominal, ordinal, numerical) has ramifications for ways in which the results can be analyzed.

  • imageAnswers need to be balanced with equal numbers of positive and negative response options.

  • imageIn general, responses should be specific and avoid vague adjectives.

  • imageResponse categories need to be homogeneous and mutually exclusive.

  • imagePotentially objectionable questions can sometimes be softened so they are more acceptable to the subject.

  • imageQuestions permitting subjects to select as many options as they choose can present challenges at the time of analysis.

  • imagePeople often find ranking scales difficult if more than three choices are to be ranked.

  • imageLikert scales are popular and easy for respondents to understand.

  • imageReliability indicates whether the results from a test or questionnaire are reproducible.

  • imageValidity indicates whether a test or questionnaire is measuring what it is intended to measure.

  • imagePilot testing is essential and need not use a large sample.

  • imageA high response rate provides more confidence in the findings.

  • imageEffective follow-up is the most important way to increase response rates.

  • imageA well-crafted cover letter should accompany all questionnaires.

  • imageIncentives, both monetary and nonmonetary, appear to have a large effect on response rates.

  • imageEthical considerations and institutional review boards require that respondents be assured that their responses will be kept confidential.

  • imageAppropriate sampling methods lead to more valid studies so long as the type of respondent is pertinent to the research question.

  • imageDetermining the required number of subjects is part of the survey design process.

  • imageSurvey results are analyzed using the methods previously discussed in this book.


Presenting Problem 1

The Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) measures the dignity-related stress experienced by a cancer patient. Li and colleagues (2018) studied the validity and reliability of translation of the PDI into Mandarin 9PDI-MV). Each time a survey instrument is translated into a new language, the reliability and validity should be retested in that language to ensure that the survey is still fulfilling its purpose in the new language.

The full paper may be accessed here:

Li Y-C, Wang ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.