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This chapter should help the student to:

  • Name the types, subtypes, and major functions of each circulatory system component.
  • Name the three tunics that make up the walls of circulatory system components and know the tissue type in each tunic.
  • Compare circulatory system components in terms of size and wall structure.
  • Relate the wall structure of each circulatory system component to its major functions.
  • Describe the heart's impulse-generating and impulse-conducting system in terms of structure, function, location, and how the impulse is conveyed to the cardiac muscle fibers.
  • Recognize the vessel types present in a micrograph and identify their structural components.
  • Distinguish between cardiac muscle and Purkinje fibers, and identify the endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, and valves in micrographs of the heart.
  • Predict the functional consequences of a structural defect in any circulatory system component.

1. List the general functions of the circulatory system (I.A).

2. Name the two vascular systems that make up the circulatory system (I.B.1 and 2).

3. Name the four types of components that make up the blood vascular system (I.B.1).

4. Name the three types of components that make up the lymphatic vascular system (I.B.2).

5. Name two points of functional contact between the blood and lymphatic vascular systems. How does fluid from the blood vascular system enter the lymphatic vascular system? How does lymph enter the blood vascular system (IV; V.C)?

6. Name the three layers (tunics) that comprise blood vessel walls and the tissues characteristic of each (I.C.1–3).

7. Which layers named in answer to question 6 are absent in capillaries (I.C.1–3; II.A)?

8. Name the four major types of blood capillaries (II.A.3.a–c) and compare them in terms of diameter and the presence of fenestrae, a continuous basal lamina, and phagocytic cells in and around the capillary wall.

9. Describe three ways in which substances (e.g., proteins, fluid, salts) may be transported across capillary walls (II.A.4).

10. Describe the action of capillary endothelial cells on angiotensin I, bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandins, norepinephrine, thrombin, thrombus formation, and lipoproteins (II.A.2.a).

11. List the three main classes of arteries according to diameter (Table 11–1) and compare them in terms of their relative abundance (II.A.1); the composition of their tunica intima, media, and adventitia; and their function.

12. Describe the carotid and aortic bodies (II.E) in terms of location, receptor class, and function.

13. List some physiologic phenomena in which arteriovenous anastomoses participate (II.G).

14. List the three main classes of veins according to their diameter (Table 11–2) and compare them in terms of their relative abundance (II.A.1); the composition of their tunica intima, media, and adventitia; and their function.

15. Compare arteries (II.B; Table 11–1) and veins (II.C; Table 11–2) in ...

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