This chapter should help the student to:
- List the features of connective tissue that distinguish it from other basic tissues.
- Know the biochemical composition and sites of synthesis of the extracellular matrix components and how they associate with one another.
- Know the structure and function of the cell types found in connective tissue.
- Compare connective tissue types in terms of the types, amounts, and arrangement of their components.
- Relate the composition of each connective tissue type to its specific functions.
- Name body sites where each connective tissue type occurs, and relate the location of each type to its function.
- Recognize connective tissue cells and tissue types in micrographs, and predict their functions.
- Predict the functional consequences of a given structural defect in a connective tissue.
1. List the three major classes of connective tissue components (I.C).
2. List the general functions of connective tissues (I.A; IV.A).
3. Name the germ layer(s) from which connective tissue cells derive and the embryonic tissues containing undifferentiated connective tissue cells (I.E; II.E.1.a; III.D).
4. List the two major classes of macromolecules that constitute ground substance (II.D).
5. List the glycosaminoglycans commonly found in ground substance (II.D.1).
6. Name the structural glycoproteins of connective tissue ground substance and describe their functions (II.D.2).
7. Give some common causes of edema and describe their effects on the pressures acting on water in capillaries (IV.B).
8. Name the three main connective tissue fiber types (II.A–C) and compare their:
Protein composition (II.A.1.a, B, and C)
Protein subunit arrangement (II.A.1.a, B, and C)
Distinctive amino acids (II.A.1.a, B, C.1.a and b)
Degree of glycosylation (II.B)
Arrangement and appearance (II.A, B, C.1.b and 2)
Physical properties and function (II.A.2 and 4, B and C.3)
Staining properties (II.A.3, B and C.2)
Location (II.A.5, B, and C.4)
9. Name the major types of collagen (II.A.2) and compare them in terms of:
Tendency to form fibers or fibrils
The cell responsible for their synthesis
10. Describe collagen synthesis and assembly, indicating the intracellular or extracellular location for each step (II.A.1.a and b; Fig. 5-1).
11. Compare procollagen and tropocollagen in terms of structure and location (II.A.1.b).
12. Describe the roles of these enzymes in fiber synthesis, assembly, and turnover:
Signal peptidase (2.III.C.1.b)
Lysyl oxidase (II.A.1.b and C.1.b)
Procollagen peptidase (II.A.1.b)
Proline hydroxylase (II.A.1.a)
13. List the cell types found in connective tissues and indicate which type is most common (II.E).
14. Compare fibroblasts and fibrocytes (II.E.1.b) in terms of shape, nuclear morphology, and activity (mitotic and synthetic).
15. From which circulating blood cell type are macrophages derived (II.E.2.b)?