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AFBAcid-fast bacillus
AIDSAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ALTAlanine aminotransferase
ANAAntinuclear antibody
ASTAspartate aminotransferase
CBCComplete blood cell count
CFComplement fixation
CHFCongestive heart failure
CKCreatine kinase
CNSCentral nervous system
CSFCerebrospinal fluid
CXRChest x-ray
CYPCytochrome P450
DiffDifferential cell count
EDTAEthylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edetate)
ELISAEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
GNRGram-negative rod
GNCBGram-negative coccobacillus
GPCGram-positive coccus
GVCBGram-variable coccobacillus
HLAHuman leukocyte antigen
INRInternational Normalized Ratio
MNMononuclear cell
MRIMagnetic resonance imaging
NPONothing by mouth (nil per os)
PCRPolymerase chain reaction
PMNPolymorphonuclear neutrophil (leukocyte)
POOrally (per os)
PTHParathyroid hormone
RBCRed blood cell
RPRRapid plasma reagin (syphilis test)
SIADHSyndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (secretion)
SLESystemic lupus erythematosus
T4Tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine)
TSHThyroid-stimulating hormone
VDRLVenereal Disease Research Laboratory (syphilis test)
WBCWhite blood cell
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This section displays information about clinically important infectious diseases in tabular form. Included in these tables are the Organisms involved in the disease/syndrome listed; Specimens/Diagnostic Tests that are useful in the evaluation; and Comments regarding the tests and diagnoses discussed. Topics are listed by body area/organ system: Central Nervous System, Eye, Ear, Sinus, Upper Airway, Lung, Heart and Vessels, Abdomen, Genitourinary, Bone, Joint, Muscle, Skin, and Blood.

Thereafter is a short section on emerging and re-emerging pathogens (viral and bacterial) and antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens.


This column lists organisms that are known to cause the stated illness. Scientific names are abbreviated according to common usage (eg, Streptococcus pneumoniae as S. pneumoniae or pneumococcus) if appropriate. Specific age or risk groups are listed in order of increasing age or frequency (eg, Infant, Child, Adult, HIV).

When bacteria are listed, Gram stain characteristics follow the organism name in parentheses—eg, "S. pneumoniae (GPDC)." The following abbreviations are used:

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AFB Acid-fast bacilliGPC Gram-positive cocci
GPDC Gram-positive diplococciGPCB Gram-positive coccobacilli
GPR Gram-positive rodsGVCB Gram-variable coccobacilli
GNC Gram-negative cocciGNDC Gram-negative diplococci
GNCB Gram-negative coccobacilliGNR Gram-negative rods

When known, the frequency of the specific organism's involvement in the disease process is also provided in parentheses—eg, "S. pneumoniae (GPDC) (50%)."

Specimen Collection/Diagnostic Tests

This column describes the collection of specimens, laboratory processing, useful radiographic procedures, and other diagnostic tests. Culture or test sensitivities with respect to the diagnosis in question are placed in parentheses immediately following the test when known—eg, "Gram stain (60%)." Pertinent serologic tests are also listed. Keep in mind that few infections ...

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