|Abbott i-STAT System|
Total CO2 (Tco2)
Anion Gap (calculated)
Ionized calcium (iCa)
Urea nitrogen (BUN)
The i-STAT System uses a hand-held device and various single-use test cartridges. Each test cartridge contains chemically sensitive biosensors on a silicon chip that are configured to perform specific tests. To perform a test or a test panel (eg, electrolytes), 2–3 drops whole blood are applied to a cartridge, which is then inserted into the hand-held device.
Activated clotting time (ACT)
Prothrombin time (PT/INR)
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI)
BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide)
The system is interfaceable to an electronic laboratory information system (LIS), and a wireless device is also available.
|Roche CoaguChek Systems (XS, XS Plus, and XS Pro)||Prothrombin time (PT/INR)|
Used for monitoring coumadin (warfarin) anticoagulation therapy.
The XS system uses a hand-held meter and PT test strip. Test can be performed on fresh capillary (fingerstick) or on nonanticoagulated venous whole blood. The test strip is first inserted into the meter and warmed. After 1 drop of blood is applied to the strip, the result appears on the meter in about 1 minute.
The XS Plus system has built-in quality control and data management. The XS Pro system is based on the XS Plus but with an added bar code scanner.
|Roche Accu-Chek Inform System||Blood glucose|
The system uses a hand-held meter and reagent test strips and is intended for use in the quantitative determination of glucose levels in whole blood samples. Capillary blood from a fingerstick is typically used.
The GDH-PQQ (glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinoline quinine) containing test strips cannot distinguish between glucose and certain non-glucose sugars, including maltose, xylose, and galactose. Patients who are receiving therapeutic products containing these non-glucose sugars will have falsely elevated blood glucose results.
|Biosite Triage Meter Pro|
Cardiac panel (CK-MB, myoglobin, cTnI)
Drugs of abuse panel
|The system is based on sensitive fluorescence immunoassay technology. It uses a portable Triage Meter and various diagnostic devices. It provides quantitative results for blood BNP, cardiac markers, and D-dimer, and qualitative results for urine toxicology screen in about 15 minutes.|
|POC HIV Test (eg, OraQuick ADVANCE HIV1/2, Uni-Gold Recombigen HIV)||Rapid HIV-1,2 antibody test||These tests are approved for oral fluid, fingerstick, or venipuncture whole blood specimens. Each test provides results within 20 minutes, enabling patients to learn their status in a single visit.|
|Rapid Strep Test (eg, CLIA waived Inc., Inverness Medical Clearview)||Rapid group A streptococcal antigen test||The test is approved for throat/tonsil swab specimen, and result is generally available in 10–15 minutes. It is used to determine whether a patient has streptococcal pharyngitis. The test is typically used in physicians' offices and emergency rooms.|
|Reagent strips for urinalysis (eg, Siemens Combistix, Multistix)||Urinalysis, nonautomated||Urine dipsticks (strips) are used to analyze urine specimens for various biochemicals (eg, blood, glucose, protein, bilirubin, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, ketone, etc), and results are available within a few minutes. Results are interpreted using visual comparison of reagent pads to the color chart guide or using a compatible dipstick reader. See Table 2–3 for more details.|
|Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) (eg, Hemoccult Sensa, HemoSure, Clearview ULTRA, InSure FIT, Polymedco FIT-CHEK)||Rapid FOBT|
Test is used for rapid, qualitative detection of human blood (hemoglobin) in feces. It is mainly used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in outpatient setting.
If guaiac-based FOBT (gFOBT) is used, three specimens on three different days are recommended to improve sensitivity. The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) selectively detects human globin-protein in stool and is specific for colorectal bleeding.
|Urine pregnancy test (various over-the-counter FDA-approved, CLIA waived tests are available)||Urine beta-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), qualitative||Based on detection of the hormone hCG in urine. In healthy subjects of childbearing age, positive hCG in urine provides an early indication of pregnancy. The detection limit for pregnancy is the day of the first missed period. If negative, recommend repeat testing in 5–7 days if menses have not occurred.|
|Pulse oximetry||Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (So2) and pulse rate (PR) (finger, ear, foot)||Pulse oximetry allows for noninvasive and continuous monitoring of arterial blood oxygen saturation (Sao2). Sao2 is not directly proportional to oxygen partial pressure (Pao2). A relatively small change in Sao2 (eg, from 94% to 83%) can represent a large change in Pao2 (eg, from 80 mm Hg to 50 mm Hg). To ensure accurate assessment of oxygenation status, pulse oximetry should be correlated with arterial blood gas analysis, if available. A reduction in peripheral pulsatile blood flow causes inaccurate reading.|