What steps are most likely to relieve caregiver distress?
What steps are most likely to address a patient's anger?
What questions have been found to be moderately effective in screening for health care literacy?
What is the FICA Spiritual History Tool?
Psychosocial aspects of care influence patient outcomes, compliance, and decision making. Patients experience illness within the context of their cultural and spiritual experience and do so surrounded by a network of family and caregivers. This chapter will identify and discuss the assessment and management of cultural, spiritual, and family caregiver aspects of care.
Response to emotional distress is an important aspect of forging the therapeutic relationship. Patient encounters may reveal intense emotions such as fear, anger, sadness, and hopelessness, especially when patients face unexpected serious or life-threatening illness. The patient may already be experiencing significant life stressors prior to hospitalization, such as divorce, death or illness of a close relative, financial worry, difficulty with family relationships, or substance use or abuse. The patient may have undiagnosed or undertreated psychological or behavioral issues including anxiety or depression. When presented with empathetic opportunities, physicians often shift their focus to biomedical explanations. Responding to emotional distress with a supportive approach can help promote an atmosphere of trust, improved patient satisfaction, and better patient outcomes (Table 218-1).
Table 218-1 Responding to a Patient's Emotional Distress |Favorite Table|Download (.pdf)
Table 218-1 Responding to a Patient's Emotional Distress
Listen to the patient
Listen to yourself.
- Read your own feelings but do not act on your emotions quickly
- Allow your emotions to cue more discovery about the patient
Reflect thoughts, feelings, and behavior
- Reflection means restating what a patient has said using their own words and phrases
Affirmation and respect
- Thank the patient for risking the sharing of emotions
- Don't be afraid to ask for more information about the emotions (eg, Can you share with me more about your sadness)
Summarize and paraphrase
- Restate the patient's story in your own words; in contrast to reflection, paraphrase and summary involves
Make a plan
- May involve changes in how you and the patient communicate
- Set expectations for next steps
- Offer follow-up
- Create a time period for returning
When clinicians encounter anger, they should determine whether the source of the anger is internalized (eg, related to fear, loss of control, being a burden, or a result of anticipatory grief of life goals not accomplished) or externalized (eg, directed at others including health care providers). Personal feelings of guilt ...