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1 and 2. Out-of-pocket payments (individual to provider), individual private insurance (individual to health plan to provider), employment-based private insurance (employer and employee to health plan to provider), government financing (government to health plan to provider). 3. Government financing. 4. Regressive. 5. d. 6. b. 7. True. 8. True. 9. False.


1. c. 2. c. 3. True. 4. Patients pay the first $500 or $1000 each year. 5. Patients pay $20 for each physician visit. 6. Health insurance that leaves large expenses that patients have to pay, for example, Medicare. 7. False.


1. A fee for each service, like doctor visit or lab test. Episode of illness, one sum is paid for all services during an illness. Capitation, one payment for each patient’s care during a month. Salary, a physician receives a $150,000 for a year’s work. 2. A sum paid for each day the patient is in the hospital. 3. A hospital receives one payment for a patient’s hospital stay; payments vary by diagnosis. 4. Physicians receive more payment for patients who are sicker so that they won’t refuse to see very sick patients.


1. a. Systemic racism, health care inequity; b. Interpersonal racism, health care inequity; c. Interpersonal racism, health inequity; d. Systemic racism, health inequity. 2. c. 3. b.


1. Beneficence, helping people in need, Nonmaleficence, do no harm. Autonomy is the right of people to make their own decisions. Justice means treating everyone fairly. 2. No, because the scan will not be beneficial. 3. No, because there is no limitation of resources. 4. No, for example reducing unneeded administrative costs.


1. a. Secondary; b. Primary; c. Tertiary; d. Secondary; e. Tertiary; f. Primary. 2. First contact care, comprehensive, continuity, coordinated. 3. No, because there is no continuity of care. 4. e, b, d, a, c.


1. a. Horizontal; b. Vertical; c. Horizontal; d. Horizontal and Vertical. 2. KP owns the hospitals and physicians versus HMO/PPO contracting with hospitals and physicians; KP pays hospitals’ global budgets; KP pays physicians’ salary. 3. a and d are true.


1. b. 2. a and d. 3. a. Percentage of practitioners in a racial-ethnic group relative to their % of US working age population. b. No. 4. c. 5. Reduce the number of patients per provider; reduce documentation burden; better team-based care.


1. Eating, dressing, bathing, toileting, and getting in or out of bed. 2. Housework, meal preparation, grocery shopping, transportation, and taking medications. 3. b, c. 4. a, b, d. ...

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