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Key Clinical Updates in Acute Epididymitis

The sexually transmitted variety of acute epididymitis in patients under age 35 years is treated with a single intramuscular injection of ceftriaxone, 500 mg, plus 10 days of oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily; in addition, any sexual partners from the preceding 60 days must be evaluated and treated as indicated.

Men who practice insertive anal intercourse receive a single intramuscular injection of ceftriaxone, 500 mg, and 10 days of oral levofloxacin, 500 mg daily, to cover sexually transmitted and enteric organisms. Non–sexually transmitted forms are treated with levofloxacin, 500 mg daily for 10 days.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Khastgir J. Expert Opin Pharmacother. [PMID: 35380486]

Urinary tract infections are among the most common entities encountered in medical practice. In acute infections, a single pathogen is usually found, whereas two or more pathogens are often seen in chronic infections. Coliform bacteria are responsible for most non-nosocomial, uncomplicated urinary tract infections, with Escherichia coli being the most common. Such infections typically are sensitive to a wide variety of orally administered antibiotics and respond quickly. Nosocomial infections often are due to more resistant pathogens and may require parenteral antibiotics. Renal infections are of particular concern because if they are inadequately treated, loss of kidney function may result. A urine culture is recommended for patients with suspected urinary tract infection and ideally should be obtained prior to the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Previously, a colony count greater than 105/mL was considered the criterion for urinary tract infection, though up to 50% of women with symptomatic infections may have lower counts. In addition, the presence of pyuria correlates poorly with the diagnosis of urinary tract infection, and thus UA alone is not adequate for diagnosis. With respect to treatment, tissue infections (pyelonephritis, prostatitis) require therapy for 1–2 weeks, while mucosal infections (cystitis) require only 1–3 days of therapy.



  • Irritative voiding symptoms.

  • Patient usually afebrile.

  • Positive urine culture; blood cultures may also be positive.

General Considerations

Acute cystitis is an infection of the bladder, most commonly due to the coliform bacteria (especially E coli) and occasionally gram-positive bacteria (enterococci). The route of infection is typically ascending from the urethra. Viral cystitis due to adenovirus is sometimes seen in children but is rare in immunocompetent adults. Uncomplicated cystitis in men is rare and implies a pathologic process such as infected stones, prostatitis, or chronic urinary retention requiring further investigation.

Clinical Findings

A. Symptoms and Signs

Irritative voiding symptoms (frequency, urgency, dysuria) and suprapubic discomfort are common. Women may experience gross hematuria, and symptoms may often appear following sexual intercourse. Physical examination may elicit suprapubic tenderness, but examination is often unremarkable. Systemic toxicity is absent.

B. Laboratory ...

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