Sections View Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Annotate Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Supplementary Content +++ GENERAL SYMBOLS ++ Table Graphic Jump Location|Download (.pdf)|Print P Partial pressure in blood or gas PO2 = partial pressure of O2 X̄ A bar over the symbol indicates a mean value. P̄= mean pressure, as distinct from instantaneous pressure Ẋ A time derivative (rate) is indicated by a dot above the symbol V̇O2 = oxygen consumption per minute, mL V̇CO2 = CO2 production per minute, mL % X Percent sign preceding a symbol indicates percentage of the predicted normal value X/Y% Percent sign following a symbol indicates a ratio function with the ratio expressed as a percentage. Both components of the ratio must be designated FEV1/FVC, % = 100 × FEV1/FVC XA, Xa A small capital letter or a lower-case letter on the same line following a primary symbol is a qualifier to further define the primary symbol. Alternatively, subscript letters may be used XA = XA, Xa = Xa Additional qualifiers of the primary symbol may be identified as shown PEO2 = Pressure of CO2 in the expired air, mm Hg +++ GAS PHASE SYMBOLS +++ Primary Symbols ++ Table Graphic Jump Location|Download (.pdf)|Print V Volume of gas V̇ Flow of gas F Fractional concentration of a gas +++ Qualifying Symbols ++ Table Graphic Jump Location|Download (.pdf)|Print I Inspired VI = inspired volume E Expired VE = expired volume V̇E = expired volume per minute A Alveolar VA = alveolar volume V̇ = alveolar ventilation per minute T Tidal VT = tidal volume D Dead space VD = volume of dead space V̇D = dead-space ventilation per minute B Barometric PB = barometric pressure STPD Standard conditions: temperature 0̊C, pressure 760 mm Hg, and dry (0 mm Hg water vapor) BTPS Body conditions: body temperature and ambient pressure, saturated with water vapor at these conditions ATPD Ambient temperature and pressure, dry ATPS Ambient temperature and pressure, saturated with water vapor at these conditions an Anatomic p Physiological f Respiratory frequency, per minute max Maximum t Time +++ BLOOD PHASE SYMBOLS +++ Primary Symbols ++ Table Graphic Jump Location|Download (.pdf)|Print Q Volume of blood Q̇ Blood flow Q̇= cardiac output, L/min C Concentration in the blood phase CO2 = concentration of oxygen in blood, mL of O2 per 100 mL of blood S Saturation in the blood phase SO2 = Saturation of hemoglobin with O2, percent +++ Qualifying Symbols ++ Table Graphic Jump Location|Download (.pdf)|... Your Access profile is currently affiliated with '[InstitutionA]' and is in the process of switching affiliations to '[InstitutionB]'. Please click ‘Continue’ to continue the affiliation switch, otherwise click ‘Cancel’ to cancel signing in. Get Free Access Through Your Institution Learn how to see if your library subscribes to McGraw Hill Medical products. Subscribe: Institutional or Individual Sign In Username Error: Please enter User Name Password Error: Please enter Password Forgot Password? Forgot Username? Sign in via OpenAthens Sign in via Shibboleth You already have access! Please proceed to your institution's subscription. Create a free a profile for additional features.