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Key Clinical Updates in Infectious Myocarditis

Myocarditis following infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection and following vaccination have been reported in the medical literature. In both scenarios, younger male patients seem to be at highest risk for this overall rare event.

Boehmer TK et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. [PMID: 34473684]

Witberg G et al. N Engl J Med. [PMID: 34614329]


  • Often follows an upper respiratory infection.

  • May present with chest pain (pleuritic or nonspecific) or signs of heart failure.

  • Echocardiogram documents cardiomegaly and contractile dysfunction. Initial heart size is generally normal with thickened walls.

  • Myocardial biopsy, though not sensitive, may reveal a characteristic inflammatory pattern. MRI has a role in diagnosis.

  • COVID-19 myocarditis impacts between 3% and 58% of people with COVID-19 based on underlying myocardial risk and imaging.


Cardiac dysfunction due to primary myocarditis is presumably caused by either an acute viral infection or a post viral immune response. Secondary myocarditis is the result of inflammation caused by nonviral pathogens, medications, chemicals, physical agents, or inflammatory diseases (such as SLE). The list of both infectious and noninfectious causes of myocarditis is extensive (Table 10–13).

Table 10–13.Causes of myocarditis.

Myopericarditis ...

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