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Primary alveolar hypoventilation ("Ondine curse") is a rare syndrome of unknown cause characterized by inadequate alveolar ventilation despite normal neurologic function and normal airways, lungs, chest wall, and ventilatory muscles. Hypoventilation is even more marked during sleep. Individuals with this disorder are usually nonobese males in their third or fourth decades who have lethargy, headache, and somnolence. Dyspnea is absent. Physical examination may reveal cyanosis and evidence of pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are present and improve with voluntary hyperventilation. Erythrocytosis is common. Treatment with ventilatory stimulants is usually unrewarding. Augmentation of ventilation by mechanical methods (phrenic nerve stimulation, rocking bed, mechanical ventilators) has been helpful to some patients. Adequate oxygenation should be maintained with supplemental oxygen, but nocturnal oxygen therapy should be prescribed only if diagnostic nocturnal polysomnography has demonstrated its efficacy and safety. Primary alveolar hypoventilation resembles—but should be distinguished from—central alveolar hypoventilation, in which impaired ventilatory drive with chronic respiratory acidemia and hypoxemia follows an insult to the brainstem (eg, bulbar poliomyelitis, infarction, meningitis, encephalitis, trauma).

McNicholas  WT  et al. Sleep in chronic respiratory disease: COPD and hypoventilation disorders. Eur Respir Rev. 2019;28:190064.
[PubMed: 31554703]  

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