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Pneumonia has classically been considered in terms of the infecting organism (Table 9–8) (eFigures 9–7, 9–8, 9–9, and 9–10). This approach facilitates discussion of characteristic clinical presentations but is a limited guide to patient management since specific microbiologic information is usually not available at initial presentation. Current classification schemes emphasize epidemiologic factors that predict etiology and guide initial therapy. Pneumonia may be classified as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or nosocomial pneumonia and, within the latter, as hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). These categories are based on differing settings and infectious agents and require different diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Anaerobic pneumonia and lung abscess can occur in both hospital and community settings.

eFigure 9–7.

Streptococcus pneumoniae.

eFigure 9–8.

Haemophilus influenzae.

eFigure 9–9.

Klebsiella pneumoniae.

eFigure 9–10.

Moraxella catarrhalis.

Table 9–8.Characteristics of selected pneumonias.

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