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Arsenic is found in some pesticides and industrial chemicals and is used as a chemotherapeutic agent. Chronic arsenic poisoning has been associated with contaminated aquifers used for drinking water. Symptoms of acute poisoning usually appear within 1 hour after ingestion but may be delayed as long as 12 hours. They include abdominal pain, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and skeletal muscle cramps. Profound dehydration and shock may occur. In chronic poisoning, symptoms can be vague but often include pancytopenia, painful peripheral sensory neuropathy, and skin changes including melanosis, keratosis, and desquamating rash. Cancers of the lung, bladder, and skin have been reported. Urinary arsenic levels may be falsely elevated after certain meals (eg, seafood) that contain large quantities of a nontoxic form of organic arsenic.

TREATMENT

A. Emergency Measures

After recent ingestion (within 1–2 hours), perform gastric lavage. Activated charcoal is of uncertain benefit because it binds arsenic poorly. Administer intravenous fluids to replace losses due to vomiting and diarrhea.

B. Antidote

For patients with severe acute intoxication, administer a chelating agent. The preferred drug is 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS, Unithiol) (3–5 mg/kg intravenously every 4 hours); although there is no FDA-approved commercial formulation of DMPS in the United States, it can be obtained from some compounding pharmacies. An alternative parenteral chelator is dimercaprol (British anti-Lewisite, BAL), which comes as a 10% solution in peanut oil and is given as 3–5 mg/kg intramuscularly every 4–6 hours for 2 days. The side effects include nausea, vomiting, headache, and hypertension. When GI symptoms allow, switch to the oral chelator succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA), 10 mg/kg every 8 hours, for 1 week. Consult a medical toxicologist or regional poison control center (1-800-222-1222) for advice regarding chelation.

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Bjørklund  G  et al. Arsenic intoxication: general aspects and chelating agents. Arch Toxicol. 2020;94:1879.
[PubMed: 32388818]  
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Rahaman  MS  et al. Environmental arsenic exposure and its contribution to human diseases, toxicity mechanism and management. Environ Pollut. 2021;289:117940.
[PubMed: 34426183]  

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