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  • Bright red blood per rectum.

  • Protrusion, discomfort.

  • Characteristic findings on external anal inspection and anoscopic examination.


Internal hemorrhoids are subepithelial vascular cushions consisting of connective tissue, smooth muscle fibers, and arteriovenous communications between terminal branches of the superior rectal artery and rectal veins. They are a normal anatomic entity, occurring in all adults, that contribute to normal anal pressures and ensure a water-tight closure of the anal canal. They commonly occur in three primary locations—right anterior, right posterior, and left lateral (eFigures 15–37 and 15–38). External hemorrhoids (eFigure 15–39) arise from the inferior hemorrhoidal veins located below the dentate line and are covered with squamous epithelium of the anal canal or perianal region.

eFigure 15–37.

Forward view of internal hemorrhoid columns. (Used, with permission, from R. Mclean.)

eFigure 15–38.

Location of internal hemorrhoids within distal rectum, proximal to dentate line is confirmed on this colonoscopic retroflex view. (Used, with permission, from A. Huang.)

eFigure 15–39.

External hemorrhoid characterized by its location adjacent but external to anal opening and squamous epithelium. (Used, with permission, from Y. Chen.)

Hemorrhoids may become symptomatic as a result of activities that increase venous pressure, resulting in distention and engorgement. Straining at stool, diarrhea, constipation, prolonged sitting, pregnancy, obesity, and low-fiber diets all may contribute. With time, redundancy and enlargement of the venous cushions may develop and result in bleeding or protrusion.


A. Symptoms and Signs

Patients often attribute a variety of perianal complaints to “hemorrhoids.” However, the principal problems attributable to internal hemorrhoids are bleeding, prolapse, and mucoid discharge. Bleeding is manifested by bright red blood that may range from streaks of blood visible on toilet paper or stool to bright red blood that drips into the toilet bowl after a bowel movement. Uncommonly, bleeding is severe and prolonged enough to result in anemia. Initially, internal hemorrhoids are confined to the anal canal (stage I). Over time, the internal hemorrhoids may gradually enlarge and protrude from the anal opening. At first, this mucosal prolapse occurs during straining and reduces spontaneously (stage II). With progression over time, the prolapsed hemorrhoids may require manual reduction after bowel movements (stage III) or may remain chronically protruding (stage IV). Chronically prolapsed hemorrhoids may result in a sense of fullness or discomfort and mucoid discharge, resulting in irritation of perianal skin and soiling of underclothes. Pain is unusual with internal hemorrhoids, occurring only when there is extensive inflammation and thrombosis of irreducible tissue or with thrombosis of an external hemorrhoid.

B. ...

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