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  • A history of chronic liver disease and ascites.

  • Fever and abdominal pain.

  • Peritoneal signs uncommonly encountered on examination.

  • Ascitic fluid neutrophil count > 250 WBCs/mcL (0.25 × 109/L).


“Spontaneous” bacterial infection of ascitic fluid occurs in the absence of an apparent intra-abdominal source of infection. It is seen with few exceptions in patients with ascites caused by chronic liver disease. Translocation of enteric bacteria across the gut wall or mesenteric lymphatics leads to seeding of the ascitic fluid, as may bacteremia from other sites. Approximately 20–30% of cirrhotic patients with ascites develop spontaneous peritonitis; however, the incidence is greater than 40% in patients with ascitic fluid total protein less than 1 g/dL, probably due to decreased ascitic fluid opsonic activity.

Virtually all cases of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis are caused by a monomicrobial infection. The most common pathogens are enteric gram-negative bacteria (E coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) or gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, Enterococcus species). Anaerobic bacteria are not associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.


A. Symptoms and Signs

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is symptomatic in 80–90% of patients; fever and abdominal pain are the most common symptoms (present in two-thirds). In many cases, however, the presentation is subtle (eg, a change in mental status due to precipitation or exacerbation of hepatic encephalopathy or a sudden worsening of kidney function).

Physical examination typically demonstrates signs of chronic liver disease with ascites. Abdominal tenderness is present in less than 50% of patients, and its presence suggests other processes. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis may be present in 10–20% of patients hospitalized with chronic liver disease, sometimes in the absence of any suggestive symptoms or signs.

B. Laboratory Findings

The most important diagnostic test is abdominal paracentesis. Ascitic fluid should be sent for cell count with differential, and blood culture bottles should be inoculated at the bedside; Gram stain and reagent strips are insensitive.

In the proper clinical setting, an ascitic fluid PMN count of greater than 250 cells/mcL (neutrocytic ascites) is presumptive evidence of bacterial peritonitis. The percentage of PMNs is greater than 50–70% of the ascitic fluid WBCs and commonly approximates 100%. Patients with neutrocytic ascites are presumed to be infected and should be started—regardless of symptoms—on antibiotics. Although 10–30% of patients with neutrocytic ascites have negative ascitic bacterial cultures (“culture-negative neutrocytic ascites”), it is presumed that these patients nonetheless have bacterial peritonitis and should be treated empirically. Occasionally, a positive blood culture identifies the organism when ascitic fluid culture is negative.


Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis must be distinguished from secondary bacterial peritonitis, in which ascitic fluid has become secondarily infected by an intra-abdominal infection. ...

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