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Bullous pemphigoid is a relatively benign pruritic disease characterized by tense blisters in flexural areas, usually remitting in 5 or 6 years, with a course characterized by exacerbations and remissions (eFigure 6–91) (eFigure 6–92). Most affected persons are over the age of 60 and men are affected twice as frequently as women. The appearance of blisters may be preceded by pruritic urticarial or edematous lesions for months. Oral lesions are present in one-third. The disease may occur in various forms, including localized, vesicular, vegetating, erythematous, erythrodermic, and nodular. Drugs may induce bullous pemphigoid. The most common offender is furosemide. Immunotherapy for malignancies with PD-1 inhibitors can cause drug-induced bullous pemphigoid.

The diagnosis is made by biopsy with direct immunofluorescence examination and serum antibody testing. Light microscopy shows a subepidermal blister. With direct immunofluorescence, IgG and C3 are found at the dermal-epidermal junction. ELISA tests for bullous pemphigoid antibodies (BP 180 or BP 230) are 87% sensitive and 95% specific. If the patient has mild disease, ultrapotent topical corticosteroids may be adequate. Prednisone (0.75 mg/kg orally daily) is often used to achieve rapid control of more widespread disease. Tetracycline (500 mg orally three times daily) or doxycycline (100 mg orally twice a day), alone or combined with nicotinamide—not nicotinic acid or niacin—(up to 1.5 g orally daily), may control the disease in patients who cannot use corticosteroids or may allow for decreasing or eliminating corticosteroids after control is achieved. Dapsone (50–200 mg orally daily) is particularly effective in mucous membrane pemphigoid. If these medications are not effective, methotrexate (5–25 mg orally weekly), azathioprine (2–4 mg/kg orally daily), or mycophenolate mofetil (1–1.5 g orally twice daily) may be used as steroid-sparing agents. Intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, omalizumab, and dupilumab have been used with success in refractory cases.

Kremer  N  et al. Rituximab and omalizumab for the treatment of bullous pemphigoid: a systematic review of the literature. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2019;20:209.
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Montagnon  CM  et al. Subepithelial autoimmune blistering dermatoses: Clinical features and diagnosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;85:1.
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Tedbirt  B  et al. Mixed individual-aggregate data on all-cause mortality in bullous pemphigoid: a meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2021;157:421.
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Zhang  Y  et al. Efficacy and safety of dupilumab in moderate-to-severe bullous pemphigoid. Front Immunol. 2021;12:738907.
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