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ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS

ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS

  • Edematous, expanding, erythematous, warm plaque with or without vesicles or bullae.

  • Lower leg is frequently involved.

  • Pain, chills, and fever are commonly present.

  • Septicemia may develop.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Cellulitis, a diffuse spreading infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, is usually on the lower leg (Figure 6–17) and most commonly due to gram-positive cocci, especially group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and S aureus. Rarely, gram-negative rods or even fungi can produce a similar picture. In otherwise healthy persons, the most common portal of entry for lower leg cellulitis is interdigital tinea pedis with fissuring. Other diseases that predispose to cellulitis are prior episodes of cellulitis, chronic edema, venous insufficiency with secondary edema, lymphatic obstruction, saphenectomy, and other perturbations of the skin barrier. Bacterial cellulitis is almost never bilateral.

Figure 6–17.

Cellulitis. (Used, with permission, from Lindy Fox, MD.)

CLINICAL FINDINGS

A. Symptoms and Signs

Cellulitis begins as a tender small patch. Swelling, erythema, and pain are often present. The lesion expands over hours, so that from onset to presentation is usually 6 to 36 hours. As the lesion grows, the patient becomes more ill with progressive chills, fever, and malaise. Lymphangitis and lymphadenopathy are often present. If septicemia develops, hypotension may develop, followed by shock.

B. Laboratory Findings

Leukocytosis or neutrophilia (left shift) may be present early in the course. Blood cultures are positive in only 4% of patients. If a central ulceration, pustule, or abscess is present, culture may be of value. Aspiration of the advancing edge has a low yield (less than 20%) and is usually not performed. In immunosuppressed patients, or if an unusual organism is suspected and there is no loculated site to culture, a full-thickness skin biopsy should be sent for routine histologic evaluation and for culture (bacterial, fungal, and mycobacterial). If a primary source for the infection is identified (wound, leg ulcer, toe web intertrigo), cultures from these sites isolate the causative pathogen in half of cases and can be used to guide antibiotic therapy.

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

Two potentially life-threatening entities that can mimic cellulitis (ie, present with a painful, red, swollen lower extremity) include DVT and necrotizing fasciitis. The diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in a patient who has a toxic appearance, bullae, crepitus or anesthesia of the involved skin, overlying skin necrosis, and laboratory evidence of rhabdomyolysis (elevated creatine kinase) or disseminated intravascular coagulation. While these findings may be present with severe cellulitis and bacteremia, it is essential to rule out necrotizing fasciitis because rapid surgical debridement is essential. Other noninfectious skin lesions that may resemble cellulitis are termed “pseudocellulitis.” Diseases in this differential ...

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