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Renal cysts are epithelium-lined cavities filled with fluid or semisolid material that develop primarily from renal tubular elements. One or more simple cysts are found in 50% of individuals over the age of 50 years. They are rarely symptomatic and have little clinical significance. In contrast, generalized cystic diseases are associated with cysts scattered throughout the cortex and medulla of both kidneys and can progress to ESKD (Table 22–10).

Table 22–10.Clinical features of renal cystic disease.

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