A novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) has been developed in response to the ongoing circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus outbreaks and has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in previously immunized adults. Studies have shown that nOPV2 is more genetically stable than the mOPV2 and therefore less prone to reverting to neurovirulence. The nOPV2 was recommended for initial use under the World Health Organization’s Emergency Use Listing Procedure in November 2020.
Coster ID et al. Lancet. [PMID: 33308429]
At least eight effective types of vaccine against Japanese encephalitis are available worldwide, including live attenuated and inactivated vaccines.
Kwak BO et al. Vaccine. [PMID: 33712352]
TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS (TBE)
TicoVac (known as FSME-Immun in Europe) was FDA-approved. The vaccine is indicated for those residing and traveling to endemic areas (and the disease is now extending to higher altitudes with climate change).
Licková M et al. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. [PMID: 32173297]
The World Health Organization recommends automated or semi-automated nucleic acid tests (NATs) of EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood from symptomatic patients for routine diagnostic management, and rapid antigen detection tests in areas where NATs are not available. Oral fluid can be used for diagnostics when blood collection is not possible.
Choi MJ et al. MMWR Recomm Rep. [PMID: 33417593]
SEVERE-ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME—COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2)