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In the ANCHOR study, which involved nearly 4500 individuals with anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), nine patients who were assigned to aggressive therapy (mostly office-based electrocautery) developed anal cancer compared with 21 of those in an active monitoring group, representing a 57% decrease in relative risk over the median 25.8-month follow-up period. This pivotal study will change care toward more aggressive screening for HGSIL and treatment to prevent progression to anal cancer.

Cabotegravir was FDA-approved for use as preexposure prophylaxis as an injectable medication, every 8 weeks. This medication has been shown to be superior to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in preventing HIV infection among men who have sex with men, transgender women who have sex with men, and cisgender women in sub-Saharan Africa.

Prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex is no longer recommended in most individuals who are initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), including in those with CD4+ counts less than 50 cells/mcL. The incidence of M avium complex infection is very low among those on ART.

The TEMPRANO trial showed that individuals immediately initiating ART versus delaying treatment for CD4 count to fall below 500 cells/mcL had lower rates of severe illness.

Palefsky J et al. CROI 2022 (special session).

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