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INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER

Bacterial and viral infections are frequently associated with fever and rash in children. Many of these rashes have known etiologies and characteristic features. Recognizing the clinical features of the rash and identifying key points in the history can help with diagnosis. In the Table 26-1, key points in a number of pediatric exanthems are summarized, as well as other rashes associated with fever. Most exanthems are self-limited and require only symptomatic treatment. Hypersensitivity reactions, such as those due to viruses or medications, can also present with fever and maculopapular rash. Vaccinations have significantly decreased the incidence of measles, rubella, varicella, and their congenital complications. However, isolated outbreaks of imported measles still occur, especially in unvaccinated populations.1,2 COVID-19 has emerged as a novel cause of fever and rash in children and adults.3 With travel to endemic areas, infections such as Zika and West Nile virus should be considered. Tick-borne infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Ehrlichiosis require identification and treatment.

Table 26-1.Diseases associated with fever and rash.

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