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For further information, see CMDT Part 18-21: Ovarian Cancer & Ovarian Tumors

Key Features

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • Symptoms include vague abdominal discomfort, pelvic pressure or pain

  • Many cases of early-stage cancer are asymptomatic

  • Pelvic examination and ultrasound are mainstays of diagnosis

General Considerations

  • Ovarian tumors are common

  • Most are benign, but malignant ovarian tumors are the leading cause of death from reproductive tract cancer

  • The wide range of types and patterns of ovarian tumors is due to the complexity of ovarian embryology and differences in tissues of origin (eTable 18–3)

  • Ultrasound or tumor marker screening for women with one or no affected first-degree relatives have not been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer, and the risks associated with unnecessary prophylactic surgical procedures outweigh the benefits in low-risk women

eTable 18–3.Ovarian functional and neoplastic tumors.

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