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For further information, see CMDT Part 33-17: Salmonellosis

Key Features

  • Most common form of salmonellosis is acute enterocolitis, which can be caused by both typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella

  • The incubation period is 8–48 h after ingestion of contaminated food or liquid

Clinical Findings

  • Fever (often with chills), nausea and vomiting, cramping abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which may be grossly bloody, lasting 3–5 days

  • Usually self-limited, but bacteremia with localization in joints or bones may occur, especially in patients with sickle cell disease or immunocompromised persons (Table 30–3)

  • Differential diagnosis

    • Viral gastroenteritis

    • Food poisoning

    • Shigellosis

    • Amebic dysentery

    • Acute ulcerative colitis

Table 30–3.Acute bacterial diarrheas and "food poisoning" (listed in alphabetical order).

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