Skip to Main Content

ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Population

  • – Children and adolescents.

Recommendation

AAFP 2010, USPSTF 2018, ICSI 2010

  • – Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening or counseling interventions to prevent or reduce alcohol misuse by adolescents.

Sources

Comments

  1. AUDIT and CAGE questionnaires have not been validated in children or adolescents.

  2. Reinforce not drinking and driving or riding with any driver under the influence.

  3. Reinforce to women the harmful effects of alcohol on fetuses.

ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

Population

  • – Children age 4–18 y with academic or behavioral problems and inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.

Recommendations

AAFP 2016, AAP 2019, NICE 2018

  • – Do not screen routinely.

  • – Initiate an evaluation for ADHD for any child 4–18 y who presents with academic or behavioral problems and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity. Diagnosis requires that the child meets DSM-V criteriaa and direct supporting evidence from parents or caregivers and classroom teacher.

  • – Screen for comorbid conditions, including emotional or behavioral conditions (eg, anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorders, substance use), developmental conditions (eg, learning and language disorders, autism spectrum disorders), and physical conditions (eg, tics, sleep apnea).

Sources

  • – AAFP. Clinical Recommendation: ADHD in Children and Adolescents. 2016.

  • – AAP. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents. 2019.

  • – NICE. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management. 2018. nice.org.uk/guidance/ng87

Comments

  1. Stimulant prescription rates continue to rise. (Lancet. 2016; 387(10024):1240-1250)

  2. Current estimates are that 7.2% of children/adolescents meet criteria for ADHD. (Pediatrics. 2015;135(4):e994)

  3. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a “black box” warning regarding the potential for cardiovascular side effects of ADHD stimulant drugs. (N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1445)

aThe DSM-5 criteria define 4 dimensions of ADHD: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder primarily of the inattentive presentation (ADHD/I) (314.00 [F90.0]); (2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder primarily of the hyperactive-impulsive presentation (ADHD/HI) (314.01 [F90.1]); (3) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined presentation (ADHD/C) (314.01 [F90.2]); and (4) other specified and unspecified ADHD (314.01 [F90.8]).

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

Population

  • – Children, age 12–36 mo.

Recommendations

USPSTF 2016

  • – Insufficient evidence to screen routinely.

Source

...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.