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  • – Asymptomatic persons.


AAFP 2011, USPSTF 2016

  • – Do not screen routinely for bladder cancer (CA) in adults.



  1. There is inadequate evidence to determine whether screening for bladder CA would effect mortality. Based on fair evidence, screening for bladder CA would result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and overdiagnosis (70% of bladder CA is in situ) with attendant morbidity. (NCI, 2017)

  2. Urinary biomarkers (nuclear matrix protein 22, tumor-associated antigen p300, presence of DNA ploidy) do not have significant sensitivity or specificity to be utilized in clinical practice. Microscopic hematuria leads to a diagnosis of bladder CA in only 5% of patients.

  3. Seventy-nine thousand cases of bladder CA are expected in 2017 in the United States, with the majority being noninvasive (70%), but still 16,900 Americans are expected to die of bladder CA in 2017. (Ann Inter Med. 2010;153:461) (Eur Urol. 2013;63:4)

  4. Maintain a high index of suspicion in anyone with a history of smoking (4- to 7-fold increased riska), an exposure to industrial toxins (aromatic amines, benzene), therapeutic pelvic radiation, cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, a history of Schistosoma haematobium cystitis, hereditary nonpolyposis colon CA (Lynch syndrome), and history of transitional cell carcinoma of ureter (50% risk of subsequent bladder CA). Large screening studies in these high-risk populations have not been performed.

  5. Voided urine cytology with sensitivity of 40% but only 10% positive predictive value, urinary biomarkers (nuclear matrix protein 22, telomerase) with suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Screening for microscopic hematuria has <10% positive predictive value.

aIndividuals who smoke are 4–7 times more likely to develop bladder CA than individuals who have never smoked. Additional environmental risk factors: exposure to aminobiphenyls; aromatic amines; azo dyes; combustion gases and soot from coal; chlorination by-products in heated water; aldehydes used in chemical dyes and in the rubber and textile industries; organic chemicals used in dry cleaning, paper manufacturing, rope and twine making, and apparel manufacturing; contaminated Chinese herbs; arsenic in well water. Additional risk factors: prolonged exposure to urinary S. haematobium bladder infections, cyclophosphamide, or pelvic radiation therapy for other malignancies.



  • – Women age <25 y.


ACS 2020

  • – Do not screen for cervical cancer.


  • – Women age 25–65 y at average risk.


ACS 2020

  • – Screen with primary HPV test alone every 5 y.

  • – Alternately, consider screening with HPV and cytology “co-testing” every 5 y ...

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