Congenital lesions account for only about 2% of heart disease that presents in adulthood. As surgical and medical techniques have improved, more and more children are now reaching adulthood. In the United States, there are many more adults with congenital heart disease than children, with an estimated 2 million adults in the United States surviving with congenital heart disease. In 2018, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) released updated guidelines for the assessment and treatment of patients with adult congenital heart disease. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) completed their update on the same topic in 2020. As the number of patients with adult congenital heart disease has grown, there has been an increased appreciation of the need for more training and guidelines. A specific subspecialty board and training program has been established. The AHA also issued a scientific statement in 2015 reviewing common issues for adults with underlying congenital heart disease, another statement in 2017 for pregnant patients with congenital heart disease, and a statement in 2017 regarding noncardiac issues in these patients.
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