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Hepatic Venous Outflow Obstruction (Budd-Chiari Syndrome)

When transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is technically not feasible because of complete hepatic vein obstruction, ultrasound-guided direct intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is an alternative approach.

The Liver in Heart Failure

Rare cases of ischemic hepatitis, also called ischemic hepatopathy, hypoxic hepatitis, shock liver, or acute cardiogenic liver injury have occurred in patients with COVID-19.

Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension

Contrast-enhanced CT or magnetic resonance angiography of the portal system can assess extension of thrombus into the mesenteric veins and exclude tumor thrombus in patients with cirrhosis.

The decision to give an anticoagulant to a patient with cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis depends on the presence of ascites, the patient's fall risk, and the patient's candidacy for liver transplantation.

Moreover, partial portal vein thrombosis may resolve in 30–50% of cases.

Data on the use of direct-acting oral anticoagulants in patients with cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis are lacking.

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