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OVERVIEW

The raising of animals—for meat, for milk, for fiber, for draft—may be among the oldest of professions, dating back thousands of years to the domestication of animals.1,2 Equally, anthropozoonotic infections, that is, those transmitted among humans and animals, are also among the first recorded diseases. For example, the Roman poet Virgil described transmission of anthrax from infected animals to humans via contact with wool: “The pelts of diseased animals were useless, and neither water or fire could cleanse the taint from their flesh…if anyone wore garments made from tainted wool, his limbs were soon attacked by inflamed papules and a foul exudate.”3 In the nineteenth century, anthrax was called “wool-sorters” disease, emphasizing the importance of the occupational routes of exposure.4 Even today, anthrax remains a persistent, although rare, risk among a variety of professionals who work in agricultural or textile settings.5 Public health success in the management of occupational anthrax may be due to several factors, in part to improved recognition and control of the disease at both the animal and the worker level, and in part to the reduction in the number of workers who handle animals and their products.

BOX 77-1 Definitions

Animal reservoir: A species of animal that can carry an infectious agent, where the infectious agent often does not cause severe disease in the animal reservoir itself.

Anthropozoonosis: A disease that can spread between humans and animals, typically in either direction (human to animal and animal to human).

Built environment: Anthropogenic (human-made) inputs to the environment.

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO): A term designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the purposes of regulation of discharges of animal waste; the number of animals required for a production facility to be designated a large, medium, and small CAFOs is different for each species of animal.

Draft animal: Working animal that is used for transportation or hauling, which includes animals that pull a load, plow, or carriage.

Environmental reservoir: A location in the inanimate environment that can foster the survival of infectious agents outside of a host.

Fiber (or fiber) animal: Animal that is used primarily for the production of wool or pelts.

Fomite: Inanimate object that may harbor infectious disease agents and play a role in indirect transmission of those agents.

Industrial Food Animal Production (IFAP): The production of food animals at high density and under confinement conditions (N.B.: This term applies to food-animal production under high density and confinement, irrespective of whether the facility discharges animal waste and therefore meets the U.S. regulatory definition of a CAFO).

Meat animal: Animal that is used for the production of meat or related commodities, such as beef, chicken, pork, lamb, and goat.

Meat-and-bone meal (MBM): A feed commodity that consists of rendered products from other animals.

Milk animal: Animal that is used for the production of liquid milk or other dairy commodities, such as cheese.

Monocropping: An ...

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