Skip to Main Content


A myriad of planning and evaluation approaches exist. Many have been applied to public health applications exclusively, while others are used in business, education, politics, and the social sciences. Most of the systematic planning models include some focus, in large or small part, on evaluation as a component inextricably linked to planning. The purpose of this chapter is to first give a brief review of several of the more traditional public health planning models, their history, and their typical use. Then, a new community-engaged planning, implementation, and evaluation approach developed by faculty at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health is described, along with its potential strengths and limitations.


Table 43-1 offers a brief summary of planning models1–12 that have been widely used in public health. The first is PRECEDE-PROCEED. Previously, a small team led by the lead author conducted a survey to assess the familiarity with and use of planning models as part of the required training of public health educators. Results revealed that, while educators were aware of many different types of planning models, PRECEDE-PROCEED was taught by 88% of respondents at both the graduate and undergraduate levels.13 This model is used with community-based health promotion and today is recognized for its community-engaged process. The next two, PATCH and Healthy People 2010 Toolkit, were developed by government officials to assist local or state governments with a strategic planning process that would enable them to link to national benchmarks and tailor local efforts. The Total Quality Improvement (TQI) approach to planning emerged from the healthcare field, where practitioners were eager to find ways to plan and evaluate improvements in the quality of healthcare delivered in their organizations using a data-driven approach. Still others, such as MATCH and Intervention Mapping, were created to provide guidance on the planning of multilevel interventions designed to improve public health. These examples are provided to illustrate both the similarities and differences of some commonly utilized planning models.


Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.