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Infectious Disease

Which of the following medications may be used in the treatment of influenza B in children under 7 years old?

A. Zanamivir

B. Oseltamivir

C. Baloxavir

D. Amantadine

E. Ranitidine

Answer: B

Oseltamivir is approved for treatment of influenza A or B in children 2 weeks (and chemoprophylaxis 3 months) or older. Zanamivir is approved for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza A or B for children older than 7 years old. Oral Baloxavir is not recommended for chemoprophylaxis. Amantadine is approved for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza A (not B) in children 1 year old or older, but because of high resistance of influenza A to amantadine, its use is not recommended. Ranitidine is an H2 blocker used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux and peptic ulcer disease.

Reference

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Influenza Antiviral Medications: Summary for Clinicians. CDC website. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/summary-clinicians.htm. Updated August 21, 2020. Accessed October 14, 2020

Which of the following treatments for influenza A and B should NOT be used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

A. Zanamivir

B. Oseltamivir

C. Baloxavir

D. Amantadine

Answer: A

Zanamivir is an inhaled medication approved for treatment of influenza A and B and is not recommended for people with airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Oseltamivir is an oral medication approved for treatment of influenza A and B and can be used in patients with lung disease. Amantadine and rimantadine are approved for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza A (not influenza B) but their use is discouraged because of high resistance of influenza A to these medicines.

Reference

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Influenza Antiviral Medications: Summary for Clinicians. CDC website. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/summary-clinicians.htm. Updated August 21, 2020. Accessed October 14, 2020

Which of the following medical interventions has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of croup?

A. Dexamethasone

B. Inhaled racemic epinephrine

C. Humidified air

D. Inhaled helium and oxygen mixture

Answer: C

Despite anecdotal evidence, cool mist or humidified air have not been proven to ...

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