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One of the factors that can alter the response to drugs is the concurrent administration of other drugs. There are several mechanisms by which drugs may interact, but most can be categorized as pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion), pharmacodynamic (additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects), or combined interactions. The general principles of pharmacokinetics are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4; the general principles of pharmacodynamics are discussed in Chapter 2.

Botanical medications (“herbals”) may interact with each other or with conventional drugs. Unfortunately, botanicals are much less well studied than other drugs, so information about their interactions is scanty. Some pharmacodynamic herbal interactions are described in Chapter 65. Pharmacokinetic interactions that have been documented (eg, St. John’s wort) are listed in Table 67–1.

TABLE 67–1Important drug interactions.

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