Typically occurs in male cigarette smokers
Distal extremities involved with severe ischemia progressing to tissue loss
Thrombosis of the superficial veins may occur
Smoking cessation is essential to stop disease progression
Buerger disease is a segmental, inflammatory, and thrombotic process of the distal most arteries and occasionally veins of the extremities
Cause is unknown but condition is rarely seen in nonsmokers
Pathologic examination reveals arteritis in affected vessels
Arteries most commonly affected are the plantar and digital vessels of the foot and lower leg
In advanced stages, the fingers and hands may become involved
Progression of disease seems to be intermittent with acute and dramatic episodes followed by some periods of remission
Lesions on the toes
Superficial thrombophlebitis may aid the diagnosis
Rest pain, particularly in the toes
Pain often progresses to tissue loss and amputation, unless patient stops smoking
Intermittent claudication is not common
et al. Buerger's disease (Thromboangiitis obliterans): a diagnostic challenge. BMJ Case Rep. 2011 Sep 13;2011. pii: bcr0820114621.
et al. Buerger's disease: providing integrated care. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2016 Oct 12;9:511–8.
et al; French Buerger's Network. Long-term outcome and prognostic factors of complications in thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease): a multicenter study of 224 patients. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Dec 4;7(23):e010677.