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For further information, see CMDT Part 18-11: Infertility

Key Features

  • Couples who have not responded to traditional infertility treatments may benefit from in vitro fertilization (IVF)

  • Age is an important determinant of success

    • For couples younger than age 35, the average pregnancy rate is 50% per cycle

    • The rate for women aged 43–44 is 4%

  • In 2017, approximately 35% of ART pregnancies were multiple, most of which (34%) were twins and only 1% were triplets

Clinical Findings



  • All procedures involve ovarian stimulation to produce multiple oocytes, oocyte retrieval by transvaginal sector scan-guided needle aspiration, and handling of the oocytes outside the body

  • With IVF, the eggs are fertilized in vitro and the embryos transferred to the uterus. Extra embryos may be cryopreserved for subsequent cycles

  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection allows fertilization with a single sperm, which is helpful in the setting of severe oligospermia or obstructive azoospermia

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