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α/β TCR T-cell-receptor genes encoding the α and β chains of the T-cell receptor

α2-PI alpha-2 plasmin inhibitor

αKG alpha ketoglutarate

αLELY α spectrin low-expression Lyon

αLEPRA α spectrin low-expression Prague

β2GPI β2-glycoprotein I

β2M β2-microglobulin

βTG β-thromboglobulin

γ/δ TCR T-cell-receptor genes encoding the γ and δ chains of the T-cell receptor

ΔOD450 change in optical density at 450 nm

κ immunoglobulin kappa light chain; kappa light chain

λ immunoglobulin lambda light chain

[3H]Thd [3H]thymidine

111In indium-111

14C radioactive carbon

15N nitrogen

2,3-BPG 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate

2-HG 2-hydroxyglutarate

2-ME 2-mercaptoethanol

2OG 2-oxoglutarate

4.1R erythrocyte isoform of protein 4.1

50Cr chromium-50

51Cr chromium-51

55Fe or 59Fe radioactive iron

5-caC 5-carobxycytosine

5-fC 5-formylcytosine

5hmC 5-hydroxymethylcytosine

5mC 5-methylcytosine

6-MP 6-mercaptopurine

6-TG 6-thioguanine

7TMRs seven trans-membrane–spanning domain proteins

8-MOP 8-methoxypsoralen

95% CI 95% confidence interval

99mTc sestamibi a radioisotope of technetium attached to the sestamibi molecule

99mTc technetium-99 (a radioisotope of technetium)

A adenine

AA arachadonic acid

AABB American Association of Blood Banks

AAP American Academy of Pediatrics

AATAAA the polyadenylation signal site; ATP, adenosine triphosphate

AAV adeno-associated virus

ABC activated B cell; adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette

ABCB10 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the inner membrane of mitochondria

ABCB7 ATP-binding cassette

ABCD1 adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter

ABL1 Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homologue 1

ABLE Age of Blood Evaluation

ABVD Adriamycin (doxorubicin), bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine

ACD anemia of chronic disease

ACE angiotensin converting enzyme

ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

aCGH array comparative genomic hybridization

aCL anticardiolipin

ACOG American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

ACS acute chest syndrome; acute coronary syndrome

ACT activated clotting time; adoptive cellular therapy

ACVBP doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, prednisone

AD autosomal dominant

ADA adenosine deaminase

ADAM a disintegrin and metalloprotease

ADAMTS a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin repeats

ADAMTS13 a disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13

ADA-SCID deaminase deficiency severe combined immunodeficiency

ADC antibody drug conjugate

ADCC antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

AD-HIES autosomal dominant hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

ADMA asymmetric dimethyl arginine

ADMIDAS adjacent to metal ion-dependent adhesion site

AdoCbl adenosylcobalamin

ADP adenosine diphosphate; δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency

AE1 anion exchanger-1 (formerly band 3)

AEC absolute eosinophil count;

AET 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide

AF ALL1-fused gene

AFLP acute fatty liver of pregnancy

AGLT acidified glycerol lysis test

AGM aorta-gonad-mesonephros

aGvHD acute graft-versus-host disease

AHA autoimmune hemolytic anemia

aHSCs autologous hematopoietic stem cells

AHSCT allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

AHTRs acute hemolytic transfusion reactions

aHUS atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

AI anemia of inflammation

AICAR 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide ribotide

AICD activation-induced cell death

AID Activation-induced cytidine deaminase

AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIHA autoimmune hemolytic anemia

AIN alloimmune neutropenia

AIP acute intermittent porphyria

AIRE autoimmune regulatory gene

AITL angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

AK adenylate kinase

AKT1 protein kinase Bα

AL immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis; light-chain amyloidosis

ALA 5-aminolevulinic acid (δ-aminolevulinic acid)

ALA synthase aminolevulinic acid synthase

ALAD δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

ALAS 5-aminolevulinic acid (δ-aminolevulinic acid) synthase

ALAS1 δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase, housekeeping form

ALAS2 gene encoding 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 2

ALAS2 δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase, erythroid-specific form

ALC absolute lymphocyte count

ALCL anaplastic large cell lymphoma

ALDH aldehyde dehydrogenase

ALDOA gene encoding aldolase A

ALG antilymphocyte globulin

ALIP abnormal localized immature precursor

ALK anaplastic lymphoma kinase

ALK gene encoding anaplastic lymphoma kinase

ALK-1 anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1

ALL acute lymphoblastic leukemia

alloHCT allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

ALPS autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

ALT alanine transaminase

AML acute myelogenous leukemia

AML1, AML2, AML3 transcription factor for various hematologic lineages

AMP adenosine monophosphate

AMPK adenosoine monophosphate kinase

ANA antinuclear antibody

ANC absolute neutrophil count

ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

ANGPTL angiopoietin-like molecules

ANK Ankyrin

ANK1 ankyrin gene

ANKL aggressive NK cell leukemia

ANN alloimmune neonatal neutropenia

anti-D antibody against D antigen

AOP2 antioxidant protein 2

AP adapter protein; apheresis platelet

AP1 activator protein-1

AP2 adaptor protein-2

AP3 activator protein 3

APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II

APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation

APC activated protein C; alternative pathway of complement; anaphase-promoting complex; antigen-presenting cell

APDS activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome

APECED autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy

APL acute promyelocytic leukemia

aPL antiphospholipid

APLA antiphospholipid antibody

Apo apolipoprotein

apo-B apolipoprotein B

apoER2 apolipoprotein E receptor 2

APP amyloid precursor protein

APRIL a proliferation inducing ligand

APS antiphospholipid syndrome; autoimmune polyglandular syndrome

aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time

AQP1 aquaporin 1

ara-C cytarabine

ara-CTP cytarabine triphosphate

ara-G 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine; arabinosylguanine

ara-GTP arabinosylguanine triphosphate

ara-U arabinosyluracil

ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker

ARC Arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis

ARD antigen recognition domain

ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARF ADP-ribosylation factor

Arf6 and Asf1b protein paralogs that are members adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factor 6

AR-HIES autosomal recessive hyperimmunoglobulin syndrome

ARID5B AT-rich interactive domain 5b

ARLTS1 ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumor-suppressor gene 1

ARP actin related protein

ARPC1B actin-related protein complex 1B

ARSA arylsulfatase A

ART antiretroviral therapy

ASA acetylsalicylic acid

ASBMT American Society for Blood & Marrow Transplantation

ASC apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD; apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with a caspase recruitment domain

ASCT allogeneic stem cell transplantation; autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; autologous stem cell transplant

ASCT2 ASC amino-acid transporter 2

Asf1a a protein that is a member of the H3/H4 family of histone chaperones

ASFA American Society for Apheresis

ASH American Society of Hematology

AsH3 arsenic hydride (arsine gas)

ASIA autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants

ASM acid sphingomyelinase; aggressive systemic mastocytosis

ASO arsenic trioxide

ASO-PCR allele specific oligonucleotide-polymerase chain reaction

AST aspartic acid transaminase

ASTCT American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy

ASXL1 a polycomb group protein-epigenetic modifier

AT antithrombin; ataxia-telangiectasia

ATAC-seq uses the hyperactive Tn5 transposase to simultaneously fragment and add sequencing adaptors to accessible DNA

Atg autophagy-related gene

ATL adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

ATLD ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder

ATLL adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

ATM ataxia-telangiectasia mutant

ATM ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene

ATO Arsenic trioxide

ATP adenosine 5′-triphosphate

ATP11C P-IV ATPase (flippase)

ATPase adenosine triphosphatase

ATR ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and rad3-related kinase

ATR-16 α-thalassemia chromosome 16-linked mental retardation syndrome

ATRA all-trans-retinoic acid

ATRs allergic transfusion reactions

ATRUS amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia with radioulnar synostosis

ATR-X α-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome

ATTRwt wild type transthyretin amyloidosis

AUC area under the concentration x time curve

AUG antigens of the Augustine; codon for initial methionine

aUPD acquired uniparental disomy

AVD doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vinblastine, dacarbazine

AVN avascular necrosis

AVWS acquired von Willebrand syndrome

AYA adolescents and young adults

AZT azidothymidine


B19 primate erythroparvovirus 1

B2M beta-2 microglobulin

BACH2 basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2

BACs bacterial artificial chromosomes

BAF BRG/BAF-Associated Factors

BAFF B-cell activating factor

BAK Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer

BAL bronchoalveolar lavage

B-ALL acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia

bALP bone alkaline phosphatase

BASC BRACA1-associated genome surveillance complex

BAT bleeding assessment tool

BC buffy coat

BCCA British Columbia Cancer Agency

BCG bacillus Calmette-Guérin

BCL B-cell lymphoma family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death

BCL10 B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 gene

BCL10 B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10

BCL11A a critical switching factor for silencing gamma globin; B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 11A

BCL11A B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 11A; B-cell lymphoma/leukemia oncogene important for □ to β globin switching

BCL-2 B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2; B-cell lymphoma protein 2

BCL2 gene encoding B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma 2

BCL-6 B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 6

BCL6 gene encoding B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma 6

Bcl-xL an antiapoptotic factor

BCL-xL B-cell leukemia extra large

BCMA B-cell maturation antigen

BCNU 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, carmustine; bis-chloroethylnitrosourea or carmustine

BCR B-cell receptor

BCR breakpoint cluster gene

BCR-ABL breakpoint cluster region-Abelson

BCRP breast cancer resistance protein transporter

BCSH British Committee for Standards in Haematology

BDR bortezimid, dexamethasone and rituximab

BEAC BCNU, etoposide, cytosine arabinoside, cyclophosphamide

BEACOPP bleomycin, etoposide, Adriamycin (doxorubicin), cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine, prednisone

BEAM BCNU/etoposide/cytarabine/melphalan [bischloroethyl-nitrosourea (carmustine), etoposide, Ara-C (cytarabine), melphalan]

BET bromo- and extra-terminal

bFGF basic fibroblast growth factor

BFP syphilis test biologic false-positive serologic test for syphilis

BFU-E burst-forming unit–erythroid

BFU-MK burst-forming unit–megakaryocyte

BiKE bispecific killer engager

Bim bcl2 interacting mediator of cell death or Bcl2-like 11

BiP immunoglobulin-binding protein

BIR baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat

BITE bispecific T-cell engager

BJ Bence Jones

BL Burkitt lymphoma

B-LBL B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

Blimp-1 B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1

BLINK B-cell linker protein; BLM, the causative gene of Bloom syndrome

BLOC biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex

BM bone marrow

BMI body mass index

BMP bone morphogenic protein

BMSC bone marrow stroma stem cell

BMT-CTN bone marrow transplant-clinical trials network

bNAbs broadly-neutralizing antibodies

BNIP3L an hypoxic regulated gene that facilitates mitochondrial autophagy

BNLI British National Lymphoma Investigation

BNP brain natriuretic peptide; B-type natriuretic peptide

bp base pair

BPG bisphosphoglycerate

BPGM bisphosphoglycerate mutase enzyme

BPI bacterial permeability-increasing protein

BPTES a glutaminase inhibitor

BR bendamustine and rituximab

BRC B-cell receptor

BRD bromodomain-containing protein

BRM biological response modifier

BS Bloom syndrome

BSS Bernard-Soulier syndrome

BTD breakthrough designation

BTH Bruton tyrosine kinase

BTK (Btk) Bruton tyrosine kinase

BTKi Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor

BTLA B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator

BU Bethesda unit; busulfan


C capsule; complement; constant

C/EBP CCAAT enhancer binding protein

C/EBPA CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha

C/EBPε regulating factor of gene expression

C/EBPβ CCAAT/enhancer binding protein

C15ORF41 gene encoding a protein with two predicted helix-turn-helix domains of unknown function

C1E-INH Complement factor 1 esterase inhibitor

C3 third component of complement

C3a serum complement fragment 3a

C4BP complement 4b–binding protein

C5a serum complement fragment 5a

CAAT CAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)

CABG coronary artery bypass graft

CAD coronary artery disease

CAD gene encoding a trifunctional enzyme (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase)

cADP cyclic adenosine diphosphate

CAFC cobblestone area-forming cell

CALASP calaspargase

CALGB Cancer and Leukemia Group B

CALR calreticulin

CALR calreticulin gene

CAM cell adhesion molecule

CAM-DR cell adhesion mediated drug resistance

cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CAMT congenital (hereditary) amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia

CAN copy number alteration

cANCA cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

CAP site a DNA site located in or near a promoter

CAP37 cationic antimicrobial protein

CAPS catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

CAPTURE Antiplatelet Therapy in Unstable Refractory Angina

CAR chimeric antigen receptor; CXCL12-abundant reticular

CaRD carfilzomib, rituximab, dexamethasone

CARD caspase activating and recruitment domain; caspase activation and recruitment domain

CAR-T cells chimeric antigen receptor T cells

cART combined antiretroviral therapy

CBC complete blood count

CBF core binding factor

CBFA1, CBFA2 core-binding factor subunit α-1 or -2

CBP a coactivator of a transcription factor

CBV cyclophosphamide, bischloroethyl-nitrosourea (carmustine), etoposide

ccff-DNA circulating cell-free fetal DNA

CCI corrected count increment

CCL C-C chemokine (C-C motif) ligand

CCR C-C chemokine receptor

CCR4 CC chemokine receptor 4

CCR5 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 gene

CCUS clonal cytopenias of undetermined significance

CCyR complete cytogenetic response

CD 44 cell differentiation antigen

CD classification determinant; cluster denomination; cluster designation; cluster of differentiation; cytoplasmic domain

CD-1 cyclin D1 high

CD11b/CD18 Mac-1 or integrin αmβ2

CD16 FcγRIIIa receptor

CD-2 cyclin D3 high

CD20 a cluster of differentiation molecule expressed on the surface of all mature B cells

CD40L CD40 ligand

CD55 an antigen encoding DAF

CD59 an antigen encoding MAC-inhibitory protein

CDA congenital dyserythropoietic anemia

CDAII congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II

CDAN1 gene encoding codanin-1

cdc cell division cycle

CDC cell-dependent cytotoxicity; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; complement-dependent cytotoxicity

cDC conventional dendritic cell

CDK cyclin-dependent kinase

CDKI cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

cDNA complementary DNA

CDP cytidine diphosphate

CDR commonly deleted region; complementarity determining region

CDR3 complementarity determining region 3

CDT catheter-directed thrombolysis

CE cholesterol ester

ceAML clonally evolved acute myelogenous leukemia

CEBPA CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha gene

CEBPA CCAAT-enhancer binding protein A

CEL, NOS chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified

CEP congenital erythropoietic porphyria

CEPBA CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α gene

CFC colony-forming cell

CFH complement factor H

CFHR complement factor H-related protein

CFU-E colony-forming unit–erythroid

CFU-GEMM colony-forming unit–granulocyte-erythroid-monocyte-macrophage

CFU-GM colony-forming unit–granulocyte-macrophage; colony-forming unit–granulocyte-monocyte

CFU-Meg (CFU-MK) colony-forming unit–megakaryocyte

CFX Chromogenic factor X

CGA cytosine, guanine, adenine

cGAMP cyclic GMP:AMP

cGAS cyclic AMP/GMP synthetase

CGD chronic granulomatous disease

CGH comparative genomic hybridization

cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CH1 (2, 3, 4) constant region 1 (2, 3, 4)

CHAPLE complement hyperactivation resulting in angiopathic thrombosis and protein losing enteropathy

CHARGE coloboma of the eye, heart defects, atresia of the nasal choanae, retardation of growth and/or development, genital and/or urinary abnormalities, and ear abnormalities and deafness

CHD CHromoDomain Remodeler; coronary heart disease

CHF congestive heart failure

CHILP common helper ILC progenitor

CHIP clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential; clonal hematopoiesis of undetermined prognosis

ChIP-seq chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing

Chk checkpoint kinase

cHL classical Hodgkin lymphoma

CHOEP cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone

CHOP clonal hematopoiesis of oncogenic potential; cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (hydroxydaunorubicin), Oncovin (vincristine), and prednisone

CHORUS Collaboration in HIV Outcomes Research/U.S. study

CHP cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, prednisone

CHR complete hematological response

CHr reticulocyte-specific hemoglobin content

CHS Cardiovascular Health Study; Chédiak-Higashi syndrome

CI comorbidity index

CIB calcium and integrin binding protein

CID combined immune deficiency

cIg cytoplasmic immunoglobulin

CILP common innate lymphoid cell progenitor

CIS a signal transduction protein that downregulates activity of erythropoietin receptor

CISNE Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia

CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CKD chronic kidney disease

ckit growth factor receptor also a proto-oncogene

CKR chemokine receptor

CL cardiolipin

CLA cutaneous lymphocyte antigen

CLEC C-type lectin-like receptor

CLIITA Class II transactivator

CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CLL/SLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma

CLL-1 C-type lectin-like molecule-1

CLP common lymphoid precursor (progenitor)

CLPD-NK chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells

CLPX member of the family of the AAA protease (AAA+ ATPase)

CLR C-type lectin receptor

CLS capillary leak syndrome

CMC chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

CML chronic myelogenous leukemia / chronic myeloid leukemia

CMML chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

CMP common myeloid progenitor

C-MPL thrombopoietin receptor gene

c-Mpl thrombopoietin receptor

CMR complete molecular response

CMT combined modality therapy

CMV cytomegalovirus

CNAs copy number abnormalities

CnCbl cyanocobalamin

CNL chronic neutrophilic leukemia

CNS central nervous system

CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor

CNV copy number variant

CO carbon monoxide

CO2 carbon dioxide

CoA coenzyme A

COCOMO Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV Infection

CODOX-M/IVAC cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, methotrexate, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine, with intrathecal cytarabine and methotrexate

COHb carboxyhemoglobin

COMFORT Controlled Myelofibrosis Study with Oral JAK Inhibitor Treatment

COMPLETE comprehensive oncology measures for peripheral t-cell lymphoma

COO cell of origin

COP cytoplasmic coat protein

COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPII coat protein complex II

COPP cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone

COX cyclooxygenase

COX-1 cyclooxygenase-1

COX4I2 gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform

coxibs COX inhibitors

cP centipoise

CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass

CPC Common progenitor clone

CPD citrate, phosphate, and dextrose

CPG clinical practice guideline

CpG cytosine phosphate guanine

C-Pi B Pittsburgh compound B

CPI checkpoint inhibitors

CPM counts per minute

CPO coproporphyrinogen oxidase

cPRA calculated panel reactive antibodies

CPRE coproporphyrinogen oxidase gene promoter regulatory element

CR complement receptor; complete remission; complete response

CR1 complement receptor 1

CR30 Complete response rate at 30 months

CRAB Calcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, or bone disease / Calcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, or bone disease

CRBN cereblon

CrCl creatinine clearance

CRE carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

CREB cyclic AMP response element-binding protein

CRF circulating recombinant form

CRi complete remission with incomplete blood cell recovery

CRI cross-reactive idiotype

CRIM cross-reactive immunologic material

CRISPR clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats

CRM cross-reacting material

CRP C reactive protein; collagen-related peptide

CRp complete remission with platelet count < 100 x 109/L

CRS cytokine release syndrome

CRu complete remission unconfirmed

CSF cerebrospinal fluid; colony-stimulating factor

CSFR granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor

CSR class switch recombination

CSS Churg-Strauss syndrome

CSSCD Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease

CT computed tomography

CT-1 cardiotrophin-1

CTA computed tomographic angiography

CTCL cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

CTCs circulating tumor cells

CTD carboxy-terminal domain

CTL cytotoxic T-lymphocyte

CTL2 choline transporter-like protein-2

CTLA cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen

CTLA-4 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4

CTP cyclic thrombocytopenia; cytosine 5-triphosphate

CTPA computed tomography pulmonary angiography

CTPS1 cytidine 5-triphosphate synthase 1

CTV computed tomographic venography

CUB cubilin

CUBAM the binary ileal cubilin receptor complex consisting of cubilin and amnionless

CV cardiovascular

CVD cardiovascular disease

CVID common variable immunodeficiency

CXCL chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand

CXCL12 C-X-C chemokine CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor 1

CXCR C-X-C chemokine receptor

CXCR4 C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4

CY/Cy cyclophosphamide

CyBorD cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone

CYP cytochrome P450

CytaBOM cytarabine, bleomycin, vincristine, methotrexate (with leucovorin rescue)

cytochrome b5R cytochrome b5 reductase


D diversity; diversity immunoglobulin gene segment

D+HUS diarrhea plus HUS

Da Dalton

DA-EPOCH-R, dose-adjusted EPOCH with rituximab

DAF decay-accelerating factor

DAG diacylglycerol

DAH diffuse alveolar hemorrhage

DAMPs damage associated molecular patterns

DAP γ-d-glutamyldiaminopimelic acid

DARC Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

DAT direct antiglobulin test

DC dendritic cell

DC-SIGN dendritic cell–specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3–grabbing nonintegrin

dCK deoxycytidine kinase

DC-SIGNDC-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin

DCT distal convoluted tubule

dCTP deoxycytidine triphosphate

dcytb duodenal cytochrome b

DD death domain; denileukin diftitox

DDAVP 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, or desmopressin (desmopressin acetate, a synthetic analogue of the pituitary hormone vasopressin)

ddNTP di-deoxynucleotide triphosphate

DDR DNA damage response

DEAF-1 deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1

dectin DC-associated C-type lectin

del p deletion of short arm of a chromosome

del q deletion of long arm of a chomorsome

del deletion

DEL double expressor lymphoma

DELTA-1 Drosophila Delta homolog-1

DEXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

dFLC difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains

DFMO α-difluoromethylornithine

DFP diisopropylfluorophosphate

DFS disease-free survival

DGKE diacylglycerol kinase ε

DGKE diacylglycerol kinase-epsilon gene

DGS DiGeorge syndrome

DH double hit

DHAPdexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin

DHFR dihydrofolate reductase

DHHS Department of Health and Human Services

DHL double-hit lymphoma

DHTR delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction

DI deformability index; diabetes insipidus

DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation

DKKI Dickkopf-1

DLBCL diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

DLCO diffusing capacity in lung for carbon monoxide

DLI donor lymphocyte infusion

DMT divalent metal transporter

DN double negative

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

DNAme DNA methylation

DNA-PK DNA protein kinase

DNase I an enzyme used to detect DNA-protein interaction

DNMT DNA methyltransferase

dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate

DOAC direct oral anticoagulants; direct-acting oral anticoagulant

DOCK dedicator of cytokinesis

DOCK8 dedicator of cytokinesis 8

DOR duration of response

DOT1 a histone H3 methyltransferase

DPD deoxypyridinoline

DPG diphosphoglycerate

DR death receptor; dietary restriction

dRVVT dilute Russell viper venom time

DSA donor antigen specific antibodies

DSB double strand break

dsDNA double-stranded DNA

DSHNHL German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group

DSIF DRB-sensitivity–inducing factor

dsRNA double-stranded RNA

DTIC dimethyltriazenoimidazole carboxamide

dTMP deoxythymidine monophosphate

DTS dense tubular system

DTT dithiothreitol

dU deoxyuridine

dUMP deoxyuridine monophosphate

DUSP4 dual specific phosphatase 4

dUTP deoxyuridine triphosphate

DVT deep vein thrombosis

DVTd daratumumab, bortezomib, thalidomide, dexamethasone


E days of gestation

E2A transcription factor import for early erythropoiesis

E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1

E2F-2 A transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and also act as a tumor suppressor protein

E5 exon 5

EA early antigen

EACA ε-aminocaproic acid

EBA erythrocyte-binding antigen

EBER Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded RNA

EBER-ISH Epstein-Barr encoding region in-situ hybridization

EBF early B-cell factor

EBF1 early B-cell factor 1

eBL endemic Burkitt lymphoma

EBMT European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

EBNA Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen

EBP erythroblastic islands

EBV Epstein-Barr virus

EBVP epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, prednisone

EC enzyme commission

ECD Erdheim-Chester disease

ECLAP European Collaboration on Low-Dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera

ECM extracellular matrix

ECMs extracellular matrix proteins

ECOG Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

ECP eosinophil cationic protein; extracorporeal photochemotherapy / extracorporeal photopheresis

ECSIT evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathway, mitochondrial

EDN eosinophil-derived neurotoxin

EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EEC endogenous erythroid colonies

EFRT extended field radiotherapy

EFS event-free survival

EGF epidermal growth factor

eGFF estimated glomerular filtration

eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate

EGF-TM7 epidermal growth factor–seven transmembrane

EGID eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease

EGLN1 gene encoding proline hydroxylase-2 (PHD2)

EGLN2 gene encoding proline hydroxylase-1

EGR1 early growth response protein 1

eIF5A eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A

EILP early ILC precursor

EKLF Erythroid Krüppel-like factor – encoded by KLF1 gene

ELBW extremely low birth weight infants

ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ELISPOT enzyme-linked immunospot assay

ELN European Leukemia Net

ELP early lymphoid progenitors

EMA eosin 5’maleimide; European Medicines Agency

EMD extramedullary disease

EMMPRIN matrix metalloproteinase inducer

EMN European Myeloma Network

EMP Embden-Meyerhof direct glycolytic pathway; extramedullary plasmacytoma

Emp erythroblast-macrophage protein

EMR epidermal growth factor module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor

EMR2 epidermal growth factor–like module containing mucin-like hormone receptor–like 2

EMZL extranodal marginal zone lymphoma

Enh enhancers

ENKTL extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma

ENO1 gene encoding enolase

eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase

ENU N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea

EOMES eomesodermin

EORTC European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer

EPAG eltrombopag

EPAS1 a gene encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF2 α)

EPCR endothelial protein C receptor

EPCT endothelial protein C receptor

EPESE Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly

EPIC evaluation of 7E3 for the prevention of ischemic complications

EPIC-Norfolk European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk

EPILOG Evaluation of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty to Improve Long-term Outcome of c7E3 GPIIb-IIIa Receptor Blockade

EPISTENT Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibitor for Stenting

Epitope a specific portion of an antigenic molecule to which an antibody attaches

EPO erythropoietin

EPOCH etoposide, prednisone, oncovin (vincristine), cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin)

EPOCH-RR EPOCH with two doses of rituximab per cycle

EPOR EPO receptor/ erythropoietin receptor (protein)

EPP erythropoietic protoporphyria

EPX eosinophil peroxidase

ER endoplasmic reticulum

ERAD ER-associated degradation

ERFE erythroferrone

ERGIC endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi intermediate compartment

ERK extracellular receptor-activated kinase

ERK1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1

ERT enzyme replacement therapy

ESA erythropoiesis-stimulating agent

ESAM endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule

ESBL extended-spectrum β-lactamase

ESC European Society of Cardiology

ESHAP etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, cisplatin

ESMO European Society for Medical Oncology

ESPGHAN European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ESTL enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma

ET essential thrombocythemia

ET-1 endothelin-1

ETC mitochondrial electron transport chain

ETCO end-tidal CO

EtN ethanolamine

etoposide VP-16

ETP early thymic progenitors

Ets, E26 E twenty-six transcription factor

ETV6 ets-like transcription factor 6

EV epidermodysplasia verruciformis; extracellular vesicle

ezf2 a protein that in humans interacts with retinoblastoma protein

EZH2 enhancer of zeste homolog 2


F1,6BP fructose 1,6 biphosphate

F2,6BP fructose 2,6 biphosphate

FA Fanconi anemia

FAB French-American-British classification

FACS fluorescence-activated cell sorting

FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide

FADD Fas-associated death domain

FAK focal adhesion kinase

FAO fatty acid oxidation

FBC Full blood count

FBP folate-binding protein

FC ferrochelatase; fludarabine and cyclophosphamide

FcR Fc receptor

FCR fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab; fraction of cells remaining

FCRL4 Fc receptor like protein 4

FcRγ Fc receptor γ-chain

FcγRIIIB, receptor IIIB for the Fc region of IgG

FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FDG 18-fluorodeoxyglucose; 2-fluorodeoxyglucose

FDG-PET fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography

FDP fibrinogen degradation product

FECH ferrochelatase

FEIBA factor VIII inhibitor bypassing activity

Fe-S iron sulfur cluster

FFP fresh-frozen plasma

FFPE formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded;

FFS failure-free survival

FGA fibrinogen Aα-chain gene

FGB fibrinogen Bβ-chain gene

FGF fibroblast growth factor

FGF23 fibroblast growth factor 23

FGFR fibroblast growth factor receptor

FGG fibrinogen γ-chain gene

FH fumarate hydratase

FH4 tetrahydrofolate

FHL familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

FIL Fondazione Italiana Linfomi

FISH fluorescence in situ hybridization

fl femtoliter

FL Flt-3 ligand; follicular lymphoma

FLAER fluorescently labeled inactive variant of the bacterial protein aerolysin

FLAG fludarabine, high-dose cytarabine, and G-CSF

FLAG-tag is a polypeptide protein tag that can be added to a protein to which specific, high affinity monoclonal antibodies have been developed

FLAM flavopiridol, cytarabine, mitoxantrone

FLASH fluorescent light activated synthetic hypericin

FLC free light-chain

FLIPI follicular lymphoma international prognostic index

FLIS FL in situ

FLLC FL like cells

FLT Fms-like tyrosine kinase

Flt-1 fms-like tyrosine kinase-1

FLT3 Fms related receptor tyrosine kinase 3 gene

FLT3-ITD internal tandem duplications of FLT3 gene

FLU fludarabine

FMF familial Mediterranean fever

FMH fetomaternal hemorrhage

fMLP formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine

FN fibronectin

FNAC fine needle aspiration cytology

FNAIT fetal / neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

FNHTR febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions

FOCUS trial Transfusion Trigger Trial for Functional Outcomes in Cardiovascular Patients Undergoing Surgical Hip Fracture Repair

FOG “friend of GATA,” a GATA-1 interacting protein

FOS a protooncogene

Fox03 a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors

FOXN1 forkhead box N1

FOXO-1 forkhead transcription factor

FoxP3 forkhead box P3

FP-24 plasma frozen after 24 hours

FpA fibrinopeptide A

FpB fibrinopeptide B

FPD familial platelet disorder

FPD/AML Familial platelet disorder with propensity to myeloid malignancy

FPGS folyl polyglutamyl synthase

FR framework region

FREM four point one, ezrin, radixin, and moesin

FRP frizzled related protein

FS Felty syndrome

FTI farnesyltransferase inhibitor

Fuc fucose

FVIII factor VIII of coagulation pathway

FVIX factor IX of coagulation pathway

FVL factor V Leiden

FYB FYN binding protein FYB-120/130


G guanine

G3P glycerol 3-phosphate

G3PD glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GA granulocyte agglutination

Gab Grb binding

GADD growth arrest and DNA damage

GAG glycosaminoglycan

Gal galactose

GalNac N-acetylglucosamine

GALT gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue

GAP glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

GAPDH glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Gas growth arrest-specific gene

Gas6 Growth arrest-specific 6

GATA1 gene globin transcription factor 1

GATA-1 transcription factor 1 binding to the DNA sequence GATA

GATA3 trans-acting T-cell-specific transcription factor

Gb gigabase, i.e., billion base pairs

Gb3 globotriaosylceramide 3

GBA β-glucocerebrosidase gene

G-banding Giemsa banding

GC germinal center

GCB germinal center B cell

GCL glutamate cysteine ligase

GCLC gene encoding the catalytic subunit of GCL

GCLM gene encoding the modifier subunit of GCL

GCNA gene copy number abnormalities

G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

G-CSF-R granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor

GD Gaucher disease

GDF15 growth differentiation factor 15

GDP gemcitabine, dexamethasone, cisplatin; glucose diphosphate; guanosine-5′-diphosphate

GEF guanine nucleotide-exchange factor

GELA Groupe d’Etude des Lymphomes de l’Adulte

GELF Groupe d’Etude des Lymphomes Folliculaires

GELOX gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, L-asparaginase

GEM Grupo Espanol de Mieloma

GEP gene expression profile

GFI growth factor independence

GFI1b growth factor independent 1B

GGCX γ-glutamyl carboxylase

GH growth hormone

GHSG German Hodgkin Study Group

GI gastrointestinal

GIFT granulocyte immunofluorescence testing

GINA The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act

GITR glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor

Gla γ-carboxyglutamic acid

GLcN glucosamine

GlcNAc N-acetylglucosamine

GLRX5 glutaredoxin 5

GLS glutaminase

GLT glycerol lysis test

GLUT glucose transporter

GLUT-1 glucose transporter-1

GM1 ganglioside M1

GM2 ganglioside M2

GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GM-CSF-R granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor

GMMG German multicenter myeloma group

GMP granulocyte-macrophage progenitor

GnRH gonadotrophin releasing hormone

GO gemtuzumab ozogamicin

GOF gain of function

GOT glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase

GP A-B-C-D-E various members of glycophorin family

GP glycophorin/ glycoprotein

gp120 glycoprotein 120

GPA glycophorin A

GPB glycophorin B

GPC glycophorin C

GPCR G-protein coupled receptor

GPD glycophorin D

GPI glycoprotein inhibitors; glycosylphosphatidylinositol; glucose phosphate isomerase; glycophosphoinositol; glycosylphosphatidylinositol

GPI-Aps glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

GPIb glycoprotein Ib

GPS gray platelet syndrome

GPT glutamate pyruvate transaminase

GPX4 glutathione peroxidase 4

GR glutathione reductase

GRADE Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation

GRAP2 GRB2-related adapter protein 2

GRO growth-regulated protein

GS glutathione synthetase

GS2 Griscelli syndrome type 2

GSH reduced glutathione

GSK glycogen synthase kinase

GSR gene encoding glutathione reductase

GSSG oxidized glutathione

GT Glanzmann thrombasthenia

GTI geranylgeranyltransferase-1 inhibitor

GTP guanosine-5’-triphosphate

GTPase guanosine triphosphatase

GVD gemcitabine, vinorelbine, liposomal doxorubicin

GvHD graft versus host disease

GVL graft versus lymphoma

GVM graft-versus-myeloma effect

GVT graft-versus-tumor

GWAS genome wide association studies


H heavy

H&E hematoxylin and eosin

H3 histone H3

H3K27 27th lysine residue of the histone H3 protein

HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy

HAc hereditary acanthocytosis

HAT hepatic artery thrombosis; histone acetyltransferase

Hb hemoglobin

HbAS sickle cell trait

HbF fetal hemoglobin

HBP heparin-binding protein

HbS sickle hemoglobin

HbSC sickle cell-HbC disease

HBSIL HBS1 Like Translational GTPase

HBV hepatitis B virus

HC haptocorrin; heavy chain; homocysteine

HCAM homing cell adhesion molecule

HCD heavy-chain disease

HCL hairy cell leukemia; hydrochloric acid

HCL-c classic HCL

HCL-v variant of HCL

HCP hematopoietic cell phosphatase; hereditary coproporphyria

HCP1 heme carrier protein 1

HCQ hydroxychloroquine

HCR hematopoietic cytokine receptor

Hct hematocrit

HCT hematopoietic cell transplantation

HCV hepatitis C virus

HDAC histone deacetylase

HDACi histone deacetylase inhibitor

HDFN hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

HDL high-density lipoprotein

HDL2 Huntington Disease-Like 2

HD-MTX high-dose methotrexate

HDN hemolytic disease of the newborn

HE hereditary elliptocytosis; hypereosinophilia

HELLP hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count

HEMPAS hereditary erythroblastic multinuclearity associated with a positive acidified serum test

HemY bacterial homolog of PPO

hENT human equilibrative nucleoside transporter

HEP hepatoerythropoietic porphyria

HES hypereosinophilic syndrome

HETE hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

HEV high-endothelial venule

HF heart failure

HFE hemochromatosis gene; high iron (high Fe)—a mutated protein associated with common hereditary hemochromatosis; human hemochromatosis protein

HFE the gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis

HFpEF heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Hgb hemoglobin

HGBL high grade B-cell lymphoma

HGF hepatocyte growth factor

HGPRT hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase

HHT hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

HHV human herpes virus

HHV8 human herpes virus 8

HIES hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

HIF hypoxia-inducible factor

HIFα hypoxia-inducible factor α

HIT heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

HIV human immunodeficiency virus

HIV1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1

HJV hemojuvelin gene

HK hexokinase; high-molecular-weight kininogen

HL Hodgkin lymphoma

HLA human histocompatibility antigens; human leukocyte antigen

HLA-DR human leukocyte antigen-D related

HLH hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

HM hematologic malignancies

HMB hydroxymethylbilane

HMG high-mobility group protein

HMGA2 high-mobility group AT-hook 2

HMGB high-mobility group box 1 protein

HMT histone methyltransferase

HNA human neutrophil antigen

HNP human neutrophil peptide (synonym: defensin)

HNPCC hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

HNSHA hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia

HO heme oxygenase

HOVON Haemato-oncology group for adults in the Netherlands

HOXB4 Homeobox protein B4

HP hypergammaglobulinemic purpura

HP1α heterochromatin protein 1

HPA human platelet alloantigens

HPC hematopoietic progenitor cell

HPC-A hematopoietic progenitor cells obtained by apheresis

HPC-C hematopoietic progenitor cells obtained from umbilical cords

HPC-M hematopoietic cell concentrate obtained from marrow

HPETE hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid

HPF high powered field

HPFH hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin

HPLC high performance liquid chromatography

HPP hereditary pyropoikilocytosis

HPS Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

HPV human papilloma virus

HR hazard ratio; homologous repair; homologous recombination; high-risk

HRE hypoxia-responsive-element

HRF homologous restriction factor

HRG1 heme transporter

HRS Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg

HS hereditary spherocytosis; nuclease-hypersensitive sites

HS/PC hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell

HS1 hepersensitive site 1

HSC hematopoietic stem cell; hepatic stellate cell

hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

HSCT hematopoietic stem cell transplant

HSE herpes simplex virus encephalitis

HSP Henoch-Schönlein purpura

HSP70 heat shock protein 70

HSPC haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells

HSt hereditary stomatocytosis

HSTCL hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma

HSV herpes simplex virus

HSV-TK herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase

HT Histological transformation

hTERT human telomerase reverse transcriptase

HTLV human T-cell leukemia virus; human T-cell lymphotropic virus

HTLV-1 human T-cell leukemia virus type 1; human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus-1; human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1; human T-lymphotropic virus type 1

hTRPC human canonical transient receptor potential

HTS high throughput sequencing

HU hydroxyurea

HUDEP human umbilical cord blood-derived erythroid progenitor

HUMARA human androgen-receptor gene

HUS hemolytic-uremic syndrome

hyper-CVAD hyperfractionated therapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin hydrochloride [Adriamycin], and dexamethasone


i isochromosome

IADL instrumental activities of daily living

IAP inhibitors of apoptosis; inhibitor of apoptosis protein

IAT indirect antiglobulin test

IBD inflammatory bowel disease

IC50 half maximal inhibitory concentration (inhibiting growth by concentration 50 percent)

ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule

ICAM-1 intercellular adhesion molecule 1

ICAM-4 intercellular adhesion molecule 4

ICAMs intercellular adhesion molecules

ICANS immune cell-associated neuropathy syndrome

iCasp9 inducible caspase 9 protein

ICD immunogenic cell death

ICE ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide

ICERss the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios

ICF immunodeficiency with centromere instability and facial anomalies

ICL idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia

ICOS inducible T-cell costimulatory

ICOSL inducible T-cell costimulatory ligand

ICSH International Committee on Standardization in Hematology; International Council for Standardization in Haematology

ICU intensive care unit

ICUS idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance

ID inhibitor of DNA binding protein

Id1 inhibitor of DNA-binding 1

Id2 transcriptional regulator inhibitor of DNA binding 2

IDA iron-deficiency anemia

IDH isocitrate dehydrogenase

IELSG International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group

IFE immunofixation electrophoresis

IFM Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome

IFN interferon

Ifng promoter interferon gamma promoter

IFN-α interferon alpha/ interferon-α

IFN-γ interferon gamma/ interferon- γ

IFRT involved field radiotherapy; involved-field radiation therapy

Ig immunoglobulin

IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor 1

IgG immunoglobulin G

IgG4+ immunoglobulin G4-positive

IGHV immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region

IGHV immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene

IGL immunoglobulin light chain

IGLL1 immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1

IgM immunoglobulin M

IgMκ Immunoglobulin M kappa light chain

IgR immunoglobulin gene rearrangement

IHC immunohistochemical stains

IHH Indian hedgehog proteins

IKK I-κB kinase

IL interleukin

IL-2 interleukin-2

IL-2RG interleukin-2 receptor gene

IL-5Rα interleukin-5 receptor α

IL-6 Interleukin-6

IL-7R IL-7 receptor

ILC Innate lymphoid cell

ILK integrin-linked kinase

ILSG International Lymphoma Study Group

IM infectious mononucleosis; intramuscular

IMiD immunomodulatory drug

IMP intramembrane particle

IMPDH inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase;

IMWG International Myeloma Working Group

indel term for the insertion or the deletion of bases

INK4 inhibitor of kinase 4

iNKT cells invariant natural killer T cells

iNO inhaled nitric oxide

iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase

INR international normalized ratio; international normalized ratio of prothrombin assay data

INRT involved nodal radiotherapy

Interlymph International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

inv inversion

IonChip the microfluidic sequencing device and pH detection used in the Ion Torrent sequencing system

IP-10 interferon-γ–induced protein 10

IP3 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate; inositol triphosphate

IPD inherited platelet disorders

IPd isatuximab, pomalidomide and dexamethasone

IPEX syndrome immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome

IPI International Prognostic Index

IPS idiopathic pneumonia syndrome; International Prognostic Score

IPS-1 IFN-β promoter stimulator 1

IPSID immuno-proliferative small intestinal disease

IPSS International Prognosis Scoring System

IPSS-R International Prognosis Scoring System Revised

IPSSWM International Prognostic Scoring System for Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinaemia

IPTCLP International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project

IRAE immune-related adverse event

IRAK IL-1 receptor-associated kinase; interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase

IRE iron-responsive element

IRF interferon regulatory factor

IRF4 interferon regulatory factor 4

IRF8 interferon-regulated factor 8

IRIS immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; International Randomized Study of Interferon and STI571

IRP iron-regulatory protein

IRP1 iron regulatory protein 1

IRS insulin receptor substrate

IRTA1 immunoglobulin superfamily receptor translocation-associated 1

ISBT International Society of Blood Transfusion

ISG15 interferon-stimulated gene 15

ISI International Sensitivity Index

ISM indolent systemic mastocytosis

ISRE interferon stimulated responsive element

ISRT involved site radiotherapy

ISS International Staging System

ISTH International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis

ISWI Imitation SWI Remodeler

ITAM immunoreceptor tyrosine (Y)-based activation motif

ITCH itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

ITD internal tandem duplication

ITG Integrin

ITI immune tolerance induction

ITIM immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif

ITK interleukin-2–inducible T-cell kinase

ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; immune thrombocytopenia; immune thrombocytopenic purpura

ITSM immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif

ITT intention to treat

IU International Unit

IUT intrauterine transfusion

iv intravenous

IV intravenously

IVAC ifosfamide, etoposide, cytarabine

IVE ifosfamide, epirubicin, etoposide

IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin

IVLBCL intravascular large B-cell lymphoma

IVS intervening sequence of a gene (i.e. an intron)

iwCLL International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

IWG International Working Group

IWG-MRT International Working Group for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment

IκB inhibitor of kappa B (κB)

IκBα inhibitor of NF-κB


J joining

JAK Janus kinase

JAK2 Janus kinase 2; janus kinase 2 gene

JAK2 Janus-type tyrosine kinase 2

JAK2/STAT3 Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription3

JAK3 Janus kinase 3; Janus-associated tyrosine kinase 3

JAM junctional adhesion molecule

JAMs junctional adhesion molecule A, B, and C

JH joining region immunoglobulin gene segment

JMJC Jumonji-C domain

JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase

JPH3 Junctophilin-3 gene

JXG juvenile xanthogranuloma


K+ potassium

KAP1 KRAB-associated protein-1 is a transcriptional cofactor

kbps kilobase pairs

KCD carfilzomib, cytoxan and dexamethasone

KCNN4 Potassium Calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 4 gene

kDa the standard unit that is used for indicating mass

Kde kappa-deleting element

KDIGO The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes

KGD lysine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide

KICS KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome

KIF23 mitotic kinesin-like protein 1

KIR killer-cell Ig-like receptors; Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor

KLF1 a hematopoietic transcription factor; key erythroid transcription factor; Kruppel-like factor 1, previously known as EKLF, erythroid Kruppel-like factor

KLF2 Krüppel-like factor 2

KLF-4 Kruppel-like factor-4

KLH keyhole limpet hemocyanin

KLHL6 Kelch-like protein-6

KRAB-ZFP one of the 400 human zinc finger protein-based transcription factors

KRD carfilzomib, lenalidomide (Revlimid), and dexamethasone

KSHV Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

KTLS a composite phenotype of c-kit+, Thy-1.1lo, lineage marker–/lo, and Sca-1+


L light

LA lupus anticoagulant

LAD leukocyte adhesion deficiency

LAG3 lymphocyte activation gene 3

LAIP leukemia-assocatied immnopheotypes

LAK lymphokine-activated killer

LAMP lysosome-associated membrane proteins

LAMP5 lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 5

LAT linker for activation of T cells;

LBCL large B-cell lymphoma

LBL lymphoblastic lymphoma

LBP lipopolysaccharide binding protein

LC Langerhans cell

LCAD long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; light-chain deposition disease

LCH Langerhans cell histiocytosis

LCH-ND LCH-associated neurodegenerative disease

lck leukocyte tyrosine kinase

LCK lymphocyte-specific kinases; lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase

LCMV lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

LCP2 Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (also known as SLP-76)

LCR locus control region

LDH lactate dehydrogenase

LDHA lactate dehydrogenase A

LDL low-density lipoprotein

LEBT localized electron beam therapy

Lect 2 amyloid composed of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2

LEF lymphoid-enhancer binding factor

Lep Leptin

LFA lymphocyte function-associated antigen

LFA-1 lymphocyte-associated antigen-1

LFT liver function test

LGL large granular lymphocyte

LGLL large granular lymphocytic leukemia

LHON Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

LI labeling index

LIBS ligand induced binding site

LIF leukemia inhibitory factor

LIG4 DNA ligase IV

LILR leukocyte Ig-like receptor

LIMBS ligand-associated metal binding site

LIT lymphoid tissue inducer cell

LKB1 Liver kinase B1

LM lymphoid malignancies

LMAN mannose-binding lectin

LMAN1 mannose-binding lectin-1

LMNA Lamin A

LMO2 LIM domain only 2 (rhombotin-like 1)

LMP latent membrane protein

LMP1 latent membrane protein 1

LMPP lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor

LMW low molecular weight

LMWH low-molecular-weight heparin

LN lymph node/ lymphatic nodule

lncRNA long noncoding RNA

LNK lymphocyte adaptor protein

LOF loss of function

LOH loss of heterozygosity

LOX lipoxygenase

LOX1 lectin-like oxLDL receptor 1

LP lumbar puncture; lymphocyte predominant

Lp(a) lipoprotein(a)

LPA lysophosphatidic acid

LPC lysophosphophosphatidylcholine

LPD lymphoproliferative disorder

LPIN2 (18p11.31) encoding lipin 2

LPL lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma

LPS lipopolysaccharide

LR laminin receptor

LRBA lipopolysaccharide responsive beige-like anchor

LRO lysosome-related organelles

LRP-1 lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1

LRR leucine-rich repeat

LSC leukemia stem cell

LSDs lysosomal storage diseases

LSK linnegsca-1+c-kit+

LSP-1 lymphocyte-specific protein-1

LT leukotriene

LTA light transmission aggregometry

LTB4 leukotriene B4

LTB4/C4/D4/E4 leukotriene B4/C4/D4/E4

LTC long-term culture

LTC-IC long-term culture-initiating cell

LT-HSC long term hematopoietic stem cells

LTi lymphoid tissue inducer

LTRs the long terminal repeats

LUBAC linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex

LX lipoxin

LYN Lck/Yes novel

LyP lymphomatoid papulosis

LYSA Lymphoma Study Association

Lyso-Gb1 glucosylsphingosine

LYST lysosomal trafficking regulator


M-CSF monocyte colony-stimulating factor

M hemoglobins; those hemoglobin mutants associated with methemoglobinemia; monoclonal

M:E myeloid-to-erythroid cell ratio

mAb monoclonal antibody

MAC membrane attack complex of complement; myeloablative conditioning

MAC-1 macrophage antigen-1

MACE modified antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

MACOP-B methotrexate with leucovorin rescue, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin

MAdCAM mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule

MAG myelin-associated glycoprotein

MAGE melanoma-associated gene

MAGT1 magnesium transporter 1

MAGUK membrane-associated guanylate kinase

MAHA microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

MAIDmesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine

MAINA monoclonal antibody immobilization of neutrophil antigens

MAIPA monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens

MAIT cell mucosa-associated invariant T cell

MAL MyD88 adaptor-like protein

Mal/TIRAP MyD88-adaptor-like/toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein

MALT mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MALT-1 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1

MAMP microbe associated molecular pattern molecules

MAP mitogen-activated protein

MAP3K7/8 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7/8

MAPK microtubule-associated protein kinase; mitogen-activated protein kinase

MARCKS myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate

MARCO macrophage receptor with a collagenous structure

MAS macrophage activation syndrome

MASCC Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer

MASP mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease

MAVS mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein

Max Myc-associated factor X

m-BACOD moderate-dose methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, dexamethasone

MBD methyl-domain binding; myeloma bone disease

MBL mannan-binding lectin; mannose-binding lectin; monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis

mBL molecular Burkitt lymphoma

MBP major basic protein

Mbp mega base pair

MCAS mast cell activation syndrome

MCFD multiple combined-factor deficiency

MCH mean cell hemoglobin

MCHC mean cell hemoglobin concentration

MCL mantle cell lymphoma

MCL-1 myeloid cell leukemia-1

MCMDM Molecular and Clinical Markers for the Diagnosis and Management

MCP mast cell-committed progenitor; membrane cofactor protein; monocute chemoattractant protein

MCS multispecies conserved sequences

M-CSF macrophage colony-stimulating factor

MCV mean cell volume

MDA5 melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5

mDia2 a protein that regulates actin and focal adhesion dynamics

MDM2 mouse double minute 2 homolog

MDP muramyl dipeptide

MDR multidrug resistance

MDS myelodysplastic syndrome

MDS/MPN myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm

MDSCs myeloid derived suppressor cells

MDS-EB1 MDS with excess blasts type 1

MDS-EB2 MDS with excess blasts type 2

MDS-MLD MDS with multilineage dysplasia

MDS-MLD-RS MDS-MLD and ring sideroblasts

MDS-RS-T MDS with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis

MDS-U MDS unclassifiable

MDS-ULD MDS with unilineage dysplasia

MDS-ULD-RS MDS-ULD and ring sideroblasts

ME Micro-environment

MeCbl methylcobalamin

MECOM MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1

MEDALIST luspatercept (ACE-536) to treat anemia due to very low, low, or intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes trial

MEITL monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma

MEK mitogen-activated protein kinase

MEL cells a mouse erythroleukemia cell line

MELAS mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like

MELD model of end-stage liver disease

MEP megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor

MERRF myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fiber syndrome

mesna sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate

MF mycosis fungoides; myelofibrosis

MFC multi-parameter flow cytometry

MFI median fluorescent intensity

MG monoclonal gammopathy

MGIP monoclonal gammopathy of indeterinant progression

MGMT O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

MGRS monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance

MGUS monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

MHC major histocompatibility complex

MI myocardial infarction

MIDAS metal ion-dependent adhesion site

Mincle macrophage-inducible C-type lectin

MINT Myocardial Ischemia and Transfusion

MIP macrophage inflammatory protein

MIP-2/CXCL2 macrophage inhibitory protein-2

MIPI Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index

miR micro RNA

MIRAGE syndrome of MDS, infection, restriction of growth, adrenal hypoplasia, genital phenotypes, and enteropathy

MIRL membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis

miRNA microribonucleic acid; microRNA

MITF microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

Miz-1 Myc-interacting zinc finger protein 1

MK megakaryocyte

MKD mevalonate kinase deficiency

MKLP1 gene encoding mitotic kinesin-like protein 1

ML malignant lymphoma

MLASA mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia

MLC myosin light chain

MLD metachromatic leukodystrophy

MLKL mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase

MLL mixed-lineage leukemia

MLL2 mixed-lineage leukemia protein 2

MLP multi-lymphoid progenitor

Mlx Max-like protein X

MM multiple myeloma

MMACHC methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein

MMAE monomethyl auristatin E

MMAF momomethyl auristatin F

MMAS monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome

MMF mycophenolate mofetil

MML myelomastocytic leukemia

mmLDL minimally modified LDL

MMP matrix metalloproteinase

MMP-8 metalloproteinase-8, also called collagenase

MMP-9 matrix metalloproteinase-9, also called gelatinase B

MMR measles-mumps-rubella

MMRV measles-mumps-rubella-varicella

m-ø macrophage

MoAb monoclonal antibody

MODS multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome

MOMP mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization

MondoA member of the MYC network of transcription factors that upregulates glycolysis (known as MLXIP, MLX interacting protein)

MonoMAC monocytopenia, B-cell and NK-cell lymphopenia associated with mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections

MonoMAC syndrome monocytopenia and Mycobacteriaum avian complex infections syndrome

MOPP mechlorethamine, Oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine, prednisone; nitrogen mustard, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, and prednisone

MP melphalan-prednisone

MPAL mixed phenoype acute leukemia

MPC multiparameter flow cytometry

MPCM maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis

mPFS modified progression-free survival

MPL myeloproliferative leukemia gene, the thrombopoietin receptor

MPN myeloproliferative neoplasm

MPNs myeloproliferative neoplasms

MPO myeloperoxidase

MPs microparticles

MPS mononuclear phagocyte system

MPT melphalan, prednisolone, thalidomide

MPV mean platelet volume

MR mannose receptor; minimal response

Mr molecular mass

MR1 MHC Class I-like protein

MRC medical research council

MRD minimal residual disease

Mrgprs Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors

MRI magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA messenger RNA; messenger ribonucleic acid

MRP multidrug resistance-associated protein; myeloid-related protein

MRP1 multidrug resistance protein 1

MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MRTFA myocardin-related transcription factor A

MS multiple sclerosis

MSC mesenchymal stem cell

MSKCC Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

mSMART Mayo Stratification of Myeloma and Risk-Adapted Therapy

MSMD mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease

Mst mammalian STE20-like kinase

MTA 5□-deoxy-5□-(methylthio)adenosine; metastasis-associated

MTAP methylthioadenosine phosphorylase

MTD maximum tolerated dose; mitochondrial targeting domain

mtDNA mitochondrial DNA

MTHFR methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

mTOR mammalian target of rapamycin

mTORC1 mTOR complex 1

MTP mitochondrial permeability transition

MTTP microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

MTX methotrexate

MUC1 mucin 1 cell surface associated gene

MUD matched unrelated donors

MUGA multigated acquisition scan

MUM1 gene encoding multiple myeloma oncogene 1

MVB multivesicular bodies

MVD microvessel density

MVs microvesicles

MYBL1 and 2 v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homologues 1 and 2

MYC a protooncogene that is a major regulator of cell growth and metabolism

MyD88 myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein

MYH9 myosin heavy chain 9

MZ marginal zone

MZL marginal zone lymphoma; marginal zone lymphoma


N2O3 dinitrogen trioxide

NACHT a nucleotide-binding domain present in NAIP, CIITA, HET-E, and TP-1

NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; nicotinic acid adenine

NAD(P)H nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NADP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NADP+ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–positive

NAIT neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

NAMPT nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase

NAP neutrophil-activating peptide

NATP neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

NBS Nijmegen breakage syndrome

NBT nitroblue tetrazolium

NBUVB narrowband UVB

NCAM neuronal cell adhesion molecule

NCCN National Comprehensive Cancer Network

NCI National Cancer Institute

Nck non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1

NCR natural cytotoxic receptor

NCTN National Clinical Trials Network

NDUFB11 NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Subunit B11

NE not estimable

neg. negative

NEK2 a serine/threonine kinase

NELF negative elongation factor

NEM N-ethylmaleimide

NEMO NF-κB essential modulator, nuclear factor-κB essential modulator

NET neutrophil extracellular trap

NETs neutrophil extracellular traps

NeuAc N-acetylneuraminic acid

NF KbOSA obstructive sleep apnea

NF nucelar factor

NFAT nuclear factor of activated T cells

NFE-2 “nuclear factor, erythroid 2”, a transcription factor essential for productive erythropoiesis; a transcription factor one of the principal regulator of hematopoiesis

NF-E2 transcription factor that binds in complex to promoters e.g. in β-globin

NFIL3 nuclear factor interleukin 3 regulated

NF-κB nuclear factor kappa B

NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

NGS next generation DNA sequencing technology

NHANES III National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHEJ nonhomologous DNA end-joining

NHL non-Hodgkin lymphoma

NIH National Institutes of Health

Nix a protein that is expressed during erythropoiesis and regulates mitochondrial apoptosis (autophagy)

NK natural killer

NK cell natural killer cell

NK-LGL natural killer cell–large granular lymphocyte

NKT natural killer T cells

NLPHL nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma

NLR NOD-like receptor

NLRP3 NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3

NMD nonsense mediated RNA decay;

NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate

NMDP National Marrow Donor Program

NMR nuclear magnetic resonance

NMZL nodal marginal zone lymphoma

nnRTI nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NOD non obese diabetic; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain

NOS nitric oxide synthase; not otherwise specified

NOTCH1 Notch homologue 1, translocation-associated

NPD Niemann-Pick disease

NPM gene encoding nucleophosmin

NPM1 nucleophosmin 1 gene

NR nuclear receptor

Nramp1 natural resistance-associated macrophage protein one

nRBC nucleated red blood cells

NRF-1 nuclear regulatory factor 1 transcription factor

NRF2 nuclear respiratory factor-2

nRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NSAA nadir serum asparaginase

NSAID nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

NSF N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion protein

NSP4 neutrophil serine protease 4

NSTEMI non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

nt nucleotide

NT-BNP N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide

NTDT non-transfusion dependent thalassemia

N-TEF negative transcription elongation factor

NTP nucleotide triphosphate

NT-ProBNP N-terminal pro type B natriuretic peptide; N-terminal pro-BNP; N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide

NTX N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen

NuRD Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylation factor

NURF NUcleosome Remodeling Factor



OB osteoblast

OC osteocalcin; osteoclast

OCT1 organic cation transporter-1

ODC ornithine decarboxylase

OF osmotic fragility

OGDH oxoglutarate dehydrogenase;

OHCbl hydroxocobalamin

OL osteolytic lesion

ONJ osteonecrosis of the jaw

OPG osteoprotegerin

OPN osteopontin

OPTN optineurin

OR observed risk; odds ratio

ORAI1 calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1

ORF open reading frame

ORR objective response rate; overall response rate

OS overall survival

OS-9 osteosarcoma protein 9

OSM oncostatin M; oncostatin M

oxLDL oxidized low-density lipoprotein

OXPHOS oxidative phosphorylation


P4P polyphosphate-4-phosphatase

P5’N1 pyrimidine-5’-nucleotidase-1

P50 point at which hemoglobin is one-half saturated with oxygen

p50 the oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated

P-7 paratarg-7

PA pernicious anemia; phosphatidic acid

PACs P1 derived artificial chromosomes

PAD peripheral arterial disease

PAF platelet activating factor

PAI plasminogen activator inhibitor

PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1

PAIgG platelet-associated immunoglobulin G

PALS periarteriolar lymphoid sheath

PAM pre-transplant assessment of mortality

PAMP pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PAP protein alveolar proteinosis

PAR protease activated receptor

PAR-1 protease-activated receptor-1

PARP adenosine disphosphate ribose polymerase; poly-ADP ribosyl polymerase

PARs proteinase-activated receptors

PAS para-aortic splanchnopleura; periodic acid–Schiff; platelets stored in additive solution

PAX5 paired box gene 5

PBG porphobilinogen

PBGD porphobilinogen deaminase

PBM patient blood management

PBMC peripheral blood monocytes, or white blood cells; peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PBPC peripheral blood progenitor cells

PBSC peripheral blood stem cells

PC pharmacologic chaperone; phosphatidyl choline; plasma cell

PCALCL primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma

PCBP1 poly(rC)-binding protein 1

PCC prothrombin complex concentrate

PCDT pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis

PCI percutaneous coronary intervention

PCL plasma cell leukemia

PCM plasma cell myeloma

PCN plasma cell neoplasm

PCP pentachlorophenol; Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

PCR polymerase chain reaction

PCT porphyria cutanea tarda

PCV-13 vaccine pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine

PCV7 7 polyvalent conjugate

PD Parkinson disease

Pd pomalidomide and dexamethasone

PD-1 programmed cell death protein 1

pDC plasmacytoid dendritic cell

PDGF platelet derived growth factor

PDGFR platelet derived growth factor receptor

PDH pyruvate dehydrogenase

PDI protein disulfide isomerase

PDK pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase

PD-L programmed death ligand

PDL1 ligand for programmed cell death protein 1

PD-L1 programmed death ligand 1

PD-L2 programmed death-ligand 2

PDW platelet volume distribution width

PDZ post synaptic density protein (PSD95), Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor (Dlg1), and zonula occludens-1 protein (zo-1)

PE phosphatidyl ethanolamine; pulmonary embolism

PECAM PGD2 platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule

PECAM platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule

PECAM-1 platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1

PEGASE monomethoxypolyethylene glycol modified asparaginase, pegaspargase

PEG-IFN-α pegylated interferon-α

PEL primary effusion lymphoma

PEP phosphoenol pyruvate

PEPFAR President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief

PET positron emission tomography

PET/CT 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography; positron emission tomography-computed tomography

PF4 platelet factor 4

PFA platelet function analysis

PFCP primary familial and congenital polycythemia

PfEMP Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein

PFK phosphofructose kinase

PFKM gene encoding muscle subunit of PFK

PFS progression-free survival

PG glycerophosphoglycerol; prostaglandin

PGA syndrome polyglandular autoimmune syndrome

PGC1α an activator of mitochondrial biogenesis

PGC-1α peroxisomal proliferator-activated cofactor 1α

PGF placental growth factor

PGI2 prostaglandin I2

PGIS prostacyclin synthase

PGK phosphoglycerate kinase

PGM prothrombin gene mutation

PGM3 phosphoglucomutase-3

P-gp permeability glycoprotein

Ph Philadelphia chromosome

PH pleckstrin homology; pulmonary hypertension

Ph+ Philadelphia chromosome positive

PHD region known as plant homeodomain is a DNA region with zinc finger motif commonly deleted in ATR-X α-thalassemia

PHD2 proline hydroxylase 2; prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2

phox phagocyte oxidase

PI phosphatidyl inositol; rognostic Index; proteasome inhibitor

PI3K phosphatidylinositol 3□-kinase; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase

PIAS protein inhibitor of activated STATs

PICU pediatric intensive care units

PIDD primary immune deficiency disease

PIGA phosphatidylinositol glycan class A

PIGF placenta growth factor

PIKfyve 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase

PIM1 protooncogene proteins pim

PINT Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion

PIOPED Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis

PIP phosphoinositol phosphate

PIP1 phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphate

PIP2 phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate

PIPK phosphoinositol phosphate kinase

PIRD primary immune regulatory disorders

piRNA PIWI-(P-element Induced WImpy testis) interacting RNA

PIT prognostic Index for T-cell lymphoma

PITs pore-induced intracellular traps

PK prekallikrein; pyruvate kinase

PKAN pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

PKC protein kinase C

PKLR gene encoding PK enzyme activity in red cells and liver

PL phospholipase; prolymphocytic leukemia

PLA2alpha phospholipase A2alpha

PLADO Platelet Dose study

PLC phospholipase C

PLC-γ1 phospholipase C-1 gamma

PLCγ2 phospholipase C-gamma-2

PLD phospholipase D

PLDN pallidin

Plg plasminogen

PLG plasminogen gene

PLG-RKT plasminogen receptor KT

PLK polo-like kinase

PLL prolymphocytic leukemia

PLS Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome; passenger lymphocyte syndrome

PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1

PLZF promyelocytic leukemia Kruppel-like zinc finger

PMBL primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

PMF primary myelofibrosis

PMN polymorphonuclear neutrophil

PMS2 postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

PNAd peripheral node addressin

PNH paroxyomal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

PNH-sc subclinical PNH

PNP purine nucleoside phosphorylase

PO2 partial pressure of oxygen

POD24 Progression of Disease at 24 months

POEMS polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes

poly-P polyphosphate

post-PV MF post-polycythemia vera MF

POT1 potentiation family protein 1

POU2AF1 Pou domain, class 2, associating factor 1

POU2F2 Pou domain, class 2, factor 2

pP-7 hyperphosphorylated protein-7; paratarg-7

PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

PPBL persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis

PPH postpartum hemorrhage

ppm parts per million

PPO protoporphyrinogen oxidase

PR partial remission; partial response

PR1 pathogenesis-related protein 1

PRA panel reactive antibody

PRAT4A protein associated with TLR4

PRC protein-repressive complex

PRC2 polycomb repressive complex 2

PRCA pure red cell aplasia

PRDM1 positive regulatory domain 1-binding factor-1

PrEP preexposure prophylaxis

PRKCD protein kinase C δ

PRO patient-reported outcomes

ProMACE prednisone, methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide

PROPPR Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios

PRP platelet-rich plasma

PRPP phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate

PRPS 5-phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase

PRR pattern recognition receptor

PS phosphatidylserine

PSGL P-selectin glycoprotein ligand

PSGL-1 P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1

PT Paris-Trousseau; prothrombin time

PTB phosphotyrosine binding

PTC plasma thromboplastin component (factor IX)

PTCL peripheral T-cell lymphoma

PTCL-NOS peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified

PTD partial tandem duplication

P-TEFb positive transcription elongation factor b

PteGlu pteroylglutamic acid (folic acid)

PTEN phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, an antioncogene

PTHrP parathyroid hormone related peptide

PTLD post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

PTNFL pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma

PTP post-transfusion purpura; protein tyrosine phosphatase

PTPRD protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D

pTreg peripherally derived regulatory T cell

PTT partial thromboplastin time

PT-VWD Platelet-Type Von Willebrand Disease

PU.1 transcription factor

PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid

PUS1 pseudouridine synthase 1 gene

PUVA psoralen plus ultraviolet A; psoralen with UVA

PV polycythemia vera

PVAG prednisone, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine

PVT portal vein thrombosis

PWID people who inject drugs

PXR pregnane X receptor

PYD pyridinoline; pyrin domain


QALY quality-adjusted life-year

qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction

qRT-PCR quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction

QTL quantitative trait locus

QT-PCR quantitative-polymerase chain reaction


R receptor; restriction

R state relaxed oxy

R/R relapsed or refractory

R-2HG (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate

RA refractory anemia; rheumatoid arthritis

RACK receptor for activated C kinase

RACK1 receptor of activated protein kinase C

RAEB refractory anemia with excess blasts

RAEB-t RAEB in transformation

RAG recombination-activating gene

RAG1/2 recombination activating gene 1/2

RANK receptor activator of NF-kB

RANKL ligand for receptor activator of NF-kB

RA-PNH− RA without a population of PNH cells

RA-PNH+ RA with a population of PNH cells

RAR retinoic acid receptor

RARS refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts

RARS-T refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts and thrombocytosis

RARα retinoic acid receptor α

RAS name given to a family of related proteins belonging to small GTPase involved in signal transduction; ra(t) s(arcoma) a group of proteins that are found near cell membranes and regulate cell division and proliferation. Mutated RAS facilitate uncontrolled cell division, leading to the development of tumors; the renin–angiotensin system

RASGRP1 Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1

RATHL Risk-Adapted Therapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma

rAVV recombinant adeno-associated virus

RB retinoblastoma gene

Rb retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein

RBC red blood cell

RBDs rare bleeding disorders

RCD regulated cell death

RCF ristocetin cofactor

R-CHOP cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab; rituximab plus CHOP; rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone; rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin [Adriamycin], vincristine [oncovin] and prednisone

RCM red cell mass

RCMD refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia

RCMD-RS RCMD with ringed sideroblasts

R-CP cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and rituximab

R-CVP cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab

RDA recommended daily allowance

RDD Rosai-Dorfman disease

R-DHAP rituximab plus DHAP

RDW red cell distribution width

rdWBP random-donor whole-blood platelet

REAL revised European-American lymphoma

RECIST Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors

REMS risk evaluation and mitigation strategy

R-EPOCH rituximab plus EPOCH; etoposide, vincristine, and doxorubicin, with bolus rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and steroids

RET-He reticulocyte-specific hemoglobin content

RF rheumatoid factor

RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism

rFVIIa recombinant factor VIIa

RGD arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide sequence

Rh rhesus

RhAG Rh-associated glycoproteins; Rh-blood group associated glycoprotein

rHDL recombinant high-density lipoprotein

RhIg Rho(D) immunoglobulin

rHuEPO recombinant human erythropoietin

R-hyperCVAD rituximab, hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone

RIAP Rap1GTP-interacting adapter molecule

RIC reduced intensity conditioning

R-ICE rituximab plus ICE

RIF realgar Indigo naturalis

RIG retinoic acid-inducible gene

RIG-I retinoic acid inducible gene I

RIP receptor-interacting protein

RIPA ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation

RIPK receptor-interacting protein kinase; receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase

RISC RNA-induced silencing complex

R-ISS revised ISS

RLR RIG-I–like receptor

RLTPR RGD, Leucine-Rich Repeat, Tropomodulin and Proline-Rich Containing Protein

RMRP ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA processing complex

RNA ribonucleic acid

RNAi RNA interference

RNAP II RNA polymerases II

RNA-seq RNA sequencing

RNR ribonucleotide reductase

RORγt retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γ thymus isoform

ROS reactive oxygen species

RPS ribosomal protein genes

rPTK receptor protein-tyrosine kinase

RR relative risk

rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid; ribosomal RNA

R-S Reed-Sternberg

RS Richter's syndrome

RSP-2 ring surface protein 2

RSS recombination signal sequence

RSV respiratory syncytial virus

RT reptilase time; reverse transcriptase

RTHα resistance to THα

RTK receptor tyrosine kinase

RT-PCR reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

RUNX runt-related transcription factor

RUNX1, RUNX2, RUNX3 runt-related transcription factor 1, 2, or 3

RVD lenalidomide (Revlimid), bortezomib (Velcade), and dexamethasone

RVV Russell viper venom

RXR retinoid X receptor


S1P sphingosine-1-phosphate

SA:V surface area-to-volume ratio

SAGE serial analysis of gene expression

SAH S-adenosylhomocysteine

SAHA suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

SAM S-adenosylmethionine

SAMe S-adenosyl-L-methionine

SAO South East Asian Ovalocytosis

SAP signal lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein

SAR1B a gene encoding a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) protein

SARA SMAD anchor for receptor activation

SARM sterile α and HEAT/armadillo motif containing 1 protein or NAD(+) hydrolase SARM1

SBFU-E burst-forming unit–erythroid

SBT sequence-based typing

SC subcutaneous

SCC squamous cell carcinoma

SCD sickle cell disease

sCD27 soluble CD27

sCD3 surface CD3

SCF stem cell factor

scFv single-chain variable fragment

SCID severe combined immune deficiency

SCL stem cell leukemia

SCL/tal-1 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor

SCL/TAL1 stem cell leukemia/t-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 factor

SCO2 cytochrome c oxidase

SCR short consensus repeat

sCR stringent complete response

SCS-βA β subunit of ATP-specific succinyl coenzyme A synthetase

SCT stem cell transplantation

scu-PA single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator

SD standard deviation

SDF stromal cell derived factor

SDF-1 stromal-derived factor-1

SDH succinate dehydrogenase

SDP single-donor platelet concentrate prepared by plateletpheresis

SDS PAGE sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

SDT skin-directed therapy

SE signaling endosome

SEER surveillance epidemiology and end results

sEng soluble endoglin

SEREX serologic analysis by recombinant expression cloning

serpin serine protease inhibitor

SERT serotonin transporter

SF3B1 splicing factor 3B subunit 1

sFlt1 soluble Flt1

sFlt-1 soluble form of fms-like tyrosine kinase 1

sFRP soluble-frizzled receptor-like protein

SGA small for gestational age

SGD specific granule deficiency

sh a short hairpin

SH somatic hypermutation

SH2 domain Src homology 2 domain

SH2 scr homology 2

SH3 Src homology 3;

SH3 domain Src homology 3 domain

SHBG sex hormone–binding globulin

SHIP-1 phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase 1

SHM somatic hypermutation

SHP-1 Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1

SIDS sudden infant death syndrome;

sIFE serum immunofixation electrophoresis

sIg secretory immunoglobulin

sIgD surface immunoglobulin D

Siglecs sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins

sIgM surface immunoglobulin M

sIL-6R soluble IL-6 receptor

SINE selective inhibitor of nuclear export

SIR standardized incidence ratio

siRNA short-interfering RNA; small interfering RNA; small interfering ribonucleic acid

SIV simian immunodeficiency virus

SKY spectral karyotyping

SLA systemic lupus erythematosus

SLAM signaling lymphocyte activation molecule

SLAMs signaling lymphocyte and activation markers

SLC15A4 solute carrier gene family 15 member 4

SLC1A5 ASC amino-acid transporter 2

SLC25A38 mitochondrial carrier family gene

SLC4A1 AE1 gene

SLE systemic lupus erythematosus

sLex sialyl Lewis X

SLL small lymphocytic B-cell lymphoma

SLT secondary lymphoid tissues

SM smoldering myeloma; systemic mastocytosis

SMA homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans small body size

SMAC supramolecular activation clusters

SMAD homologue of Drosophilia mothers against decapentaplegic

SMAD 1 the abbreviation refers to the homologies to the Caenorhabditis elegans SMA ("small" worm phenotype) and Drosophila MAD ("Mothers Against Decapentaplegic")

SM-AHN systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic neoplasm

SMARCAL1 switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF)-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A–like protein 1

SMARCD2 SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily D, member 2

SMILE dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, etoposide

SMRTCell Single Molecule Real Time sequencing device for the Pacific Biosciences single molecule sequencing system

SMZL splenic marginal zone lymphoma

Sn sialoadhesin

SNAP soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein

SNARE SNAP receptor

SNGP supranuclear gaze palsy

SNO-Hb S-nitroso hemoglobin

snoRNA small nucleolar RNA

SNP single nucleotide polymorphism

snRNA small nuclear RNA; small nuclear riboprotein complex

SNV single nucleotide variant

SOCS suppressors of cytokine signaling

SOCS3 a signal transduction protein (also known as CIS3) that downregulates activity of erythropoietin receptor

SOD superoxide dismutase

SOD1 superoxide dismutase

SOFA sequential organ failure assessment

SOP solitary osseous plasmacytoma

SOS sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

SOST slerostin

SP side population

Sp1 transcription factor

SpCO arterial COHb concentration

SPEP protein electrophoresis of serum; serum protein electrophoresis

S-phase synthetic-phase

sPLA2 secretory phospholipase A2

SpMet arterial methemoglobin concentration

SpO2 arterial oxygen saturation

SPTA1 α spectrin gene

SPTB β spectrin gene

SPTL subcutaneous panniculitis T-cell lymphoma

SR scavenger receptor

SR-A scavenger receptor A

SRF serum response factor

SRL sirolimus

SRT substrate reduction therapy

SS Sézary syndrome

SSAT spermidine/spermine-N-acetyltransferase

SSM smoldering systemic mastocytosis

SSO sequence-specific oligonucleotide

SSP sequence-specific primer

STAT signal transducer and activator of transcription

STAT3 gene signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene

STAT5 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5

Steap3 ferric reductase

STEAP3 six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 3

STEC Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli

STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

sTfR soluble transferrin receptor

STIM stromal interaction molecule

STIM1 stromal interaction molecule 1

STING stimulator of interferon genes

STIR short tau inversion recovery

STM sterile α motif

STOP Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Disease

STR short tandem repeat

Stx Shiga toxin

SUMO small ubiquitin-like modifier

SUV standard uptake value

sVEGFR-1 soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1

SWI/SNF SWItch and Sucrose Non-Fermenting remodeler

SWOG Southwestern Oncology Group

Syk spleen tyrosine kinase

SyMBS synergy metal binding site


T thymine; thymus-derived

t translocation

T cell thymus-derived lymphocyte

T. gonadiitoxoplasma gonadii

T state tense, deoxy

TAB TGF-β-activated kinase 1- and MAP3K7-binding protein

TACE tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme

TACI transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand interactor; THRLBCL, T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma

TACO transfusion associated circulatory overload

TAFI Thrombin activatable thrombolysis inhibitor

TA-GVHD transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease

TAK1 transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1

TAL1 gene encoding T-cell acute leukemia-1

TALEN transcription activator-like effector nuclease

TALENs transcription activator-like effector nucleases

T-ALL T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

TAM tandem auto-HSCT with melphalan conditioning

tanCAR tandem-CAR

TANK TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator

TAP-1/2 transport-associated protein 1/2

TAR Thrombocytopenia absent radius

TARC thymus and activation regulated chemokine

TAT thrombin–antithrombin

TATA DNA sequence binding TBP (TATA Binding Protein)

TATA box a DNA sequence (cis-regulatory element) found in the promoter region of genes

Tb terabase, i.e., trillion base pairs

T-BET T-box transcription factor

TBI total body irradiation

TBK1 TANK-binding kinase 1

TBV total blood volume

TC transcobalamin

TCA tricarboxylic acid

TCD transcranial Doppler

TCDD 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

TCE T-cell engager; trichloroethylene

TCF T-cell factor

TCF1 T cell-factor 1

TCFE2A transcription factor E2a

TCL1 T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A

TCM central-memory T cells

TCR T cell receptor

TCT thrombin clotting time

TDG thymine DNA glycosylase

Tdt terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

TDT transfusion dependent thalassemia

TE effector T cell

TECs thymic epithelial cells

TELESTO MDS event free survival with iron chelation therapy study

TEM effector-memory T cells

TEMRA T memory

Teniposide VM-26

TERC telomerase RNA component

TERT telomerase reverse transcriptase

TET ten-eleven translocation; Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase - family of dioxygenases that catalyze conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine

TET2 a hmolgue of chromosome 10-11 translocation

TF tissue factor

TFEB transcription factor EB

Tfh cell follicular helper T cell

TFH follicular helper T cells

tFL Transformed FL

TFPI tissue factor pathway inhibitor

TfR transferrin receptor

TfR1 transferrin receptor 1

TFRC transferrin receptor

TGF transforming growth factor

TGF-β transforming growth factor beta

Th T helper

TH thyroid hormone; triple hit

Th1 T-cell helper type 1

TH17 T-helper-17 cell

Th2 T-helper type 2

THBG thrombomodulin gene

THF tetrahydrofolate

THPO receptor of thrombopoietin

THRA gene encoding thyroid hormone receptor α

THRB gene encoding thyroid hormone receptor β

TIA transient ischemic attack