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  • Symptoms include vague gastrointestinal discomfort, pelvic pressure, or pain.

  • Many cases of early-stage cancer are asymptomatic.

  • Pelvic examination and ultrasound are mainstays of diagnosis.


Ovarian tumors are common. Most are benign, but malignant ovarian tumors are the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer. The wide range of types and patterns of ovarian tumors is due to the complexity of ovarian embryology and differences in tissues of origin (eTable 18–3).

eTable 18–3.Ovarian functional and neoplastic tumors.

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