Vaginal hemorrhage originates from gross ulceration and cavitation in later stage cervical carcinoma. Ligation and suturing of the cervix are usually not feasible, but emergent vaginal packing, cautery, tranexamic acid, and irradiation are helpful to stop bleeding temporarily. Ligation, resection, or embolization of the uterine or hypogastric arteries may be lifesaving when other measures fail.
1. Carcinoma in situ (stage 0)
In women for whom childbearing is not a consideration, total hysterectomy is the definitive treatment. In women who wish to retain the uterus, acceptable alternatives include cryosurgery, laser surgery, LEEP, or cervical conization. Follow-up co-testing (cytology and HPV DNA) should be repeated at 12-month intervals for 2 years after excisional or ablative treatment.
Microinvasive carcinoma (stage IA1) is treated with simple, extrafascial hysterectomy. Stages IA2, IB1, and IIA cancers may be treated with either radical hysterectomy with concomitant radiation and chemotherapy or with radiation plus chemotherapy alone. Women with stage IB1 may be candidates for fertility-sparing surgery that includes radical trachelectomy and lymph node dissection with preservation of the uterus and ovaries. Stages IB2, IIB, III, and IV cancers are treated with radiation therapy plus concurrent chemotherapy.