ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS
Often mistaken as a neurologic disorder.
Decreased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, or magnesium levels.
Despite a low total serum calcium, calcium metabolism is likely normal if ionized calcium level is normal.
The most common cause of low total serum calcium is hypoalbuminemia. When serum albumin concentration is lower than 4 g/dL (40 g/L), serum Ca2+ concentration is reduced by 0.8–1 mg/dL (0.20–0.25 mmol/L) for every 1 g/dL (10 g/L) of albumin.
The most accurate measurement of serum calcium is the ionized calcium concentration. True hypocalcemia (decreased ionized calcium) implies insufficient action of PTH or active vitamin D. Important causes of hypocalcemia are listed in Table 21–6.
++ Table Graphic Jump Location Table 21–6.Causes of hypocalcemia. ||Download (.pdf) Table 21–6. Causes of hypocalcemia.
Decreased intake or absorption
Small bowel bypass, short bowel
Vitamin D deficit (decreased absorption, decreased production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D)
Chronic kidney disease
Hypoparathyroidism (genetic, acquired; including hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia)
Post-parathyroidectomy (hungry bone syndrome)
Calcitonin secretion with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
Decreased serum albumin1
Decreased end-organ response to vitamin D
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, plicamycin, loop diuretics, foscarnet
The most common cause of hypocalcemia is advanced CKD, in which decreased production of active vitamin D3 (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) and hyperphosphatemia both play a role (see Chapter 22). Some cases of primary hypoparathyroidism are due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor in which inappropriate suppression of PTH release leads to hypocalcemia (see Chapter 26). Magnesium depletion reduces both PTH release and tissue responsiveness to PTH, causing hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia in pancreatitis is a marker of severe disease. Elderly hospitalized patients with hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia, with or without an elevated PTH level, are likely vitamin D deficient.
A. Symptoms and Signs
Hypocalcemia increases excitation of nerve and muscle cells, primarily affecting the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. Spasm of skeletal muscle causes cramps and tetany. Laryngospasm with stridor can obstruct the airway. Convulsions, perioral and peripheral paresthesias, and abdominal pain can develop. Classic physical findings include Chvostek sign (contraction of the facial muscle in response to tapping the facial nerve) and Trousseau sign (carpal spasm occurring with occlusion of the brachial artery by a blood pressure cuff). QT prolongation predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias. In chronic hypoparathyroidism, cataracts and calcification of basal ganglia may appear (see Chapter 26).
B. Laboratory Findings
Serum calcium concentration is low (less than 8.5 mg/dL [2.1 mmol/L]). In true hypocalcemia, the ionized serum calcium concentration is also low (less than 4.6 mg/dL [1.15 mmol/L]). Serum phosphate is usually elevated in hypoparathyroidism or in advanced ...