The principal influences on ventilatory control are arterial PCO2, pH, PO2, and brainstem tissue pH. These variables are monitored by peripheral and central chemoreceptors. Under normal conditions, the ventilatory control system maintains arterial pH and PCO2 within narrow limits; arterial PO2 is more loosely controlled.
Abnormal control of ventilation can be seen with a variety of conditions ranging from rare disorders, such as central alveolar hypoventilation, Ondine curse, neuromuscular disorders, myxedema, starvation, and carotid body resection to more common disorders, such as asthma, COPD, obesity, heart failure, and sleep-related breathing disorders. A few of these disorders will be discussed in this section.