ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS
Nonhealing ulcer or warty nodule.
Skin damage due to long-term sun exposure.
Common in fair-skinned organ transplant recipients.
Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs subsequent to prolonged sun exposure on exposed parts in fair-skinned individuals who sunburn easily and tan poorly. It may arise from an actinic keratosis. The lesions appear as small red, conical, hard nodules that occasionally ulcerate (Figure 6–32). In actinically induced squamous cell cancers, rates of metastasis are estimated from retrospective studies to be 3–7%. Squamous cell carcinomas of the ear, temple, lip, oral cavity, tongue, and genitalia have much higher rates of recurrence or metastasis and require special management. Patients with multiple squamous cell carcinomas (especially more than 10) have higher rates of local recurrence and nodal metastases.
Squamous cell carcinoma: an irregular-shaped pink plaque with overlying hemorrhagic crust in a chronically sun-exposed area. (Used, with permission, from Richard P. Usatine, MD, in Usatine RP, Smith MA, Mayeaux EJ Jr, Chumley H. The Color Atlas of Family Medicine, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, 2013.)
Squamous cell carcinoma in situ can be treated with imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil (in similar dosing as for superficial basal cell carcinoma) or curettage and electrodessication. The preferred treatment for invasive squamous cell carcinoma is excision or Mohs micrographic surgery. Mohs micrographic surgery is recommended for high-risk lesions (lips, temples, ears, nose), recurrent tumors, aggressive histologic subtypes (perineural or perivascular invasion), large lesions (greater than 1.0 cm on face, greater than 2.0 cm on trunk or extremities), immunosuppressed patients, lesions developing within a scar, and tumors arising in the setting of genetic diseases. Follow-up for squamous cell carcinoma must be more frequent and thorough than for basal cell carcinoma, starting at every 3 months, with careful examination of lymph nodes for 1 year, then twice yearly thereafter.
Transplant patients with squamous cell carcinomas represent a highly specialized patient population. Biologic behavior of skin cancer in organ transplant recipients may be aggressive, and careful management is required. Multiple squamous cell carcinomas are very common on the sun-exposed skin of organ transplant patients. The intensity of immunosuppression, not the use of any particular immunosuppressive agent, is the primary risk factor in determining the development of skin cancer after transplant. The tumors begin to appear after 5 years of immunosuppression. Voriconazole treatment appears to increase the risk of development of squamous cell carcinoma, especially in lung transplant patients. Regular dermatologic evaluation in at-risk organ transplant recipients is recommended. Other forms of immunosuppression, such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, HIV/AIDS, and chronic iatrogenic immunosuppression, may also increase skin cancer risk and be associated with more aggressive skin cancer behavior.
et al. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a review of high-risk and metastatic disease. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Oct;17(5):491–508.
et al. Comparing the eighth and the seventh editions of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system and the Brigham and Women’s Hospital alternative staging system for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: implications for clinical practice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jan;80(1):106–13.
et al. Survival of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: results of a prospective cohort study. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Nov;137(11):2309–15.
et al; KeraCon Consortium. The pathogenesis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in organ transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol. 2017 Nov;177(5):1217–24.
et al. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment, part II: squamous cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods. Dermatol Surg. 2015 Nov;41(11):1214–40.
et al. Guidelines of care for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Mar;78(3):560–78.
et al; European Dermatology Forum (EDF); European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO); European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Diagnosis and treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Sep;51(14):1989–2007.