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Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey showed that sexual minority women, compared with their heterosexual counterparts, had increased modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors of mental distress, current tobacco use, binge drinking, increased likelihood of obesity, and glycosylated hemoglobin consistent with prediabetes.

Data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study found cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity) varied by sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, calling for intersectional assessments and interventions that account for sexual orientation, race, and ethnicity.

A population-based study from the United Kingdom found higher rates of cancer among gay and bisexual men but no difference in cancer diagnoses between lesbian and bisexual women and their heterosexual counterparts except for a higher rate of oropharyngeal cancer.

A 2019 study concluded that sexual orientation clearly plays a role in sexual victimization risk when they found that compared with heterosexual women, bisexual women had 3.7 times the odds of initial victimization and 7.3 times the odds of repeat victimization, and lesbian women had 3.2 times the odds of repeat victimization even after controlling for other sociodemographic factors.


For unvaccinated men who have sex with men between the ages of 27 and 45, shared decision-making around HPV vaccination is recommended.


A retrospective cohort study of several thousand transgender men and women enrolled in a large health plan in the United States found modest increases in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and venous thromboembolic events in transgender women, but not in transgender men, as compared with a matched control group. Outcomes were not adjusted for dose or route of estrogen administration, however, and the absolute risk difference was low, with numbers needed to harm in the 80 to 120 range for various outcomes.

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