CARCINOMA OF THE PANCREAS & AMPULLA OF VATER
Hyperglycemia and decreases in subcutaneous abdominal fat and serum lipid levels have been reported to precede a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.
Molecular testing results, which increasingly influence the treatment regimen choice for esophageal cancer, include PD L1 expression, mismatch repair/microsatellite instability and, for adenocarcinomas, HER2 amplification testing as well as a next generation sequencing panel.
MALIGNANCIES OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
For small intestinal carcinoids, patients with grade 1 disease may not require treatment for many years even with metastatic disease. However, patients with grade 3 neuroendocrine tumor may have a clinical course similar to a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.
Meta-analyses suggest that individuals with increased physical activity are up to 27% less likely to develop colon cancer. Also, for each increase of 5 kg/m2 in BMI, there is a 5% increased cancer risk.
Colonoscopy should be considered in all nonmenstruating adults with new-onset iron deficiency anemia.