Skip to Main Content

Chapter 22: Emotion

A car accident victim continues to exhibit a normal lack of fear of intrinsically fearful entities such as snakes and leopards but has lost fear for images that one learns are dangerous, such as guns and fearful facial expressions. Normal semantic and episodic memories of non–fear-associated items remain intact and continue to be learned. The lesion is likely to be located where?

A. Hippocampus

B. Amygdala

C. Insula

D. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

E. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

B. The amygdala is specifically involved with memories of fearful items associated with dangerous or punishing contexts from the past. Damage to the hippocampus would interfere with the acquisition of all new memories. Damage to the insula does not eliminate emotional learning but interferes with visceral consciousness and empathy. Prefrontal damage interferes with all emotional judgement, not just emotional learning.

After a stroke, a 57-year-old man suddenly develops a gambling addiction and loses most of his savings at a casino. He also exhibits what is called utilization behavior, the tendency to use objects that do not belong to him, such as grabbing coins from someone else’s pile at the casino and inserting them in the slot machine. Where is the lesion likely to be?

A. Hippocampus

B. Amygdala

C. Thalamus

D. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

E. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

D. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as in the case of Phineas Gage, results in poor social judgement, risk taking, and utilization behavior. Damage to the hippocampus interferes with the acquisition of new memories. Thalamic damage results in deficits in sensory processing, motor control, and attention. Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would interfere with working memory tasks.

Two patients present at a neurology clinic with mirror image brain lesions. One patient has become high risk taking and manic, while the other is lethargic and depressed. The manic/depressed mirror lesions are where?

A. Left/right ventromedial prefrontal cortex

B. Right/left ventromedial prefrontal cortex

C. Left/right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

D. Right/left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

E. Left/right amygdala

B. The left prefrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex more than dorsolateral, is biased to approach, while the right is biased toward withdrawal. Damage ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.