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Chapter 20: Learning & Memory

Short-term working memory mainly involves which brain region(s)?

A. Only the prefrontal cortex (PFC)

B. Only the posterior parietal cortex and temporal cortex

C. Only the hippocampus

D. The PFC, posterior parietal cortex, and temporal cortex

E. All regions of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes

D. A combination of human functional imaging studies and research in rodents has demonstrated that short-term working memory involves specific regions in the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and temporal cortex.

The hippocampus is required for the formation of new _________ memories.

A. semantic, episodic, and spatial

B. explicit and implicit

C. declarative and nondeclarative

D. procedural and spatial

E. short-term working

A. Human studies (eg, patient H.M. and others) have demonstrated that the hippocampus is required for semantic and episodic (together with declarative or explicit) and spatial memory. Encoding of implicit/nondeclarative and short-term memory involves other brain regions.

The majority of long-term explicit memories are thought to be stored in many

A. structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL).

B. regions of the hippocampus.

C. parts of the basal ganglia.

D. domains of the cerebellum.

E. areas of the cerebral cortex.

E. Although encoding and formation of new declarative/explicit memories require the hippocampus, studies in rodents suggest that memories are transferred from the hippocampus to the cerebral cortex following encoding and learning over a period of days to weeks to months. Human studies also suggest that some episodic memories, especially autobiographical memories, are either stored in the hippocampus or require the hippocampus for retrieval.

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is thought to be a neuronal mechanism involved in

A. sensory memory.

B. short-term working memory.

C. long-term memory.

D. only hippocampal-dependent memory.

E. all types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term.

C. Sensory memory involves very short-lived enhancement of synaptic transmission, whereas short-term working memory involves increased circuit ...

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