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Chapter 10: Synaptic Plasticity

Which of the following statements best describes neuroplasticity?

A. Neuroplasticity takes place during development but not in the adult brain.

B. Neuroplasticity is the process that prevents the brain from becoming rewired after injury and disorders.

C. Neuroplasticity is synonymous with neurotransmission.

D. Neuroplasticity is proposed to be the mechanism whereby learning and memory take place.

E. Neuroplasticity involves modification of individual synapses but not neuronal circuits.

D. Neuroplasticity occurs in both the developing and adult brain. Neuroplasticity is the mechanism that allows the brain to become rewired after injury and disorders. Neuroplasticity is what leads to a change in neurotransmission and circuit activity. Neuroplasticity is thought to underlie all types of learning and memory. Neuroplasticity likely involves modification of individual synapses, overall neuronal activity, neuronal circuits, and even formation of new neurons (neurogenesis).

Which of the following best describes synapses?

A. Synapses form predominantly during prenatal synaptogenesis but can be weakened or strengthened postnatally.

B. Synapses occur only between axons and dendrites but involve astrocytes that regulate neurotransmitter uptake.

C. Synaptogenesis occurs robustly during the critical period, and the majority of those synapses are stable in adulthood.

D. A typical interneuron receives between 1 and 10 synapses.

E. Synapses can be modified postnatally by experience and activity.

E. Synapses form (synaptogenesis) prenatally, postnatally, and in the adult brain. Synapses can occur between a presynaptic neuron and another neuron (on the dendrite, axon, or cell body), a muscle, or a gland. Synaptogenesis occurs both prenatally and postnatally, and the critical period is when a significant amount of activity-dependent synaptic refinement occurs. Some synapses are not completely stable in adulthood. A typical interneuron receives thousands of synapses. Synapses are modified by postnatal experience and activity.

Changes in synapse number and strength in the adult brain are usually called

A. synaptogenesis.

B. synaptic plasticity.

C. synaptic transmission.

D. synaptic integration.

E. adult neurogenesis.

B. Synaptogenesis is the formation of new synapses. Synaptic plasticity refers to changes (increase or decreases) in synapse number and strength (response). Synaptic transmission usually refers to the electrical or other response at the postsynaptic target. Synaptic integration can refer ...

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