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Chapter 3: Functional Anatomy of the Nervous System I: Cerebrum & Subcortical Structures

Which of the following statements best describes the cerebrum?

A. The cerebrum is derived from telencephalon, forms the largest part of the brain, and consists of the left and right cerebral hemispheres, which are separated by the central sulcus.

B. Each of the 4 main anatomic lobes—the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes—contains a significant area dedicated to sensory and motor functions.

C. The locations of primary, secondary, and tertiary gyri and sulci are invariant among human individuals.

D. The right and left cerebral hemispheres are exact anatomic and functional mirror images of each other, although the right hemisphere receives sensory input from and controls the left side of the body, whereas the left hemisphere receives sensory input from and controls the right side of the body.

E. In addition to 4 anatomic lobes, 2 functional lobes, called the insular and limbic lobes, located deep within the brain, have been characterized in humans.

E. The left and right cerebral hemispheres are separated by the longitudinal fissure (also known as the deep sagittal fissure). Only the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes contain substantial cortical areas dedicated to sensory processing, and only the frontal lobe has substantial cortical areas dedicated to motor function. However, because they are all well connected, all the lobes do contribute to sensory processing and motor function. The locations of the primary gyri and sulci are very similar among humans, but the secondary and tertiary gyri and sulci can be located differentially among individuals. The right and left hemispheres are not functionally identical because some functions such as language are lateralized and/or more prominent on 1 side of the brain. The insular lobe and limbic lobe are considered the fifth and sixth “functional” lobes but are not visible from the exterior view of the brain.

Which of the following statements best characterizes the cerebral cortex?

A. Human brain contains only 1 type of cerebral cortex, called neocortex, that is composed of 6 layers.

B. Individual association areas receive substantial inputs from both primary sensory and primary motor areas.

C. The smallest functional unit of the neocortex is a cylinder of neurons approximately 2 to 3 mm in height and approximately 0.5 mm in diameter, called a cortical column.

D. The human neocortex represents approximately 25% of the cerebral gray matter.

E. The cerebral hemispheres contain the cerebral cortex, which is the thin ...

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